The drawn-out and often contentious societal and technological transition to Open Access and Open Science/Open Research, particularly across North America and Europe (Latin America has already widely adopted "Acceso Abierto" since before 2000[39]) has led to increasingly entrenched positions and much debate. [51], The most common licenses used in open access publishing are Creative Commons. [2][175][176][177] This 'citation advantage' was first reported in 2001. [2]" There is a push to make more specific policy about allowed embargoes, rather than leaving it up to publishers. Access to online content requires Internet access, and this distributional consideration presents physical and sometimes financial barriers to access. [30], Similar to the free content definition, the terms 'gratis' and 'libre' were used in the BOAI definition to distinguish between free to read versus free to reuse. The Canadian Association of Research Libraries has a program[132] to develop institutional repositories at all Canadian university libraries. Unlike Gold OA the copyright for these articles usually sits with the publisher of, or the society affiliated with, the title and there are … ‘Gold’ open access for individual articles is funded by authors (or their author's institution or funders) who pay an open access publishing fee (APC). In theory, nothing prevents the publisher from retroactively 'unfreeing' all of the journal's content in the future. In the case of DOAJ, only fully gold open access journals are included, whereas PMC also hosts articles from hybrid journals. Peer-reviewed, open access journals for science, technology, social science and medicine. More institutions followed suit in the following years. [67][68][69][70] Some publishers (e.g. [note 1] Indeed, the benefits of preprints, especially for early-career researchers, seem to outweigh any perceived risk: rapid sharing of academic research, open access without author-facing charges, establishing priority of discoveries, receiving wider feedback in parallel with or before peer review, and facilitating wider collaborations.[93]. Different open access types are currently commonly described using a colour system. [147], Many open access projects involve international collaboration. In this way, predatory journals exploit the OA model by deceptively removing the main value added by the journal (peer review) and parasitize the OA movement, occasionally hijacking or impersonating other journals. The figure varies significantly depending on region and kind of publisher: 75% if university-run, over 80% in Latin America, but less than 25% in Western Europe. amateur astronomers). A blacklist of predatory publishers is also maintained by Cabell's blacklist (a successor to Beall's List). 'Scientific' refers to all academic disciplines. Some advocates propose that readers will have increased skepticism of preprint studies - a traditional hallmark of scientific inquiry. [note 4], Peer review of research articles prior to publishing has been common since the 18th century. Open access helps researchers as readers by opening up access to articles that their libraries do not subscribe to. [24] In some ways this is a large-scale technical implementation of pre-existing practice, whereby those with access to paywalled literature would share copies with their contacts. Open source software is sometimes used for open access repositories,[244] open access journal websites,[245] and other aspects of open access provision and open access publishing. [76][197][216], Open irony refers to the situation where a scholarly journal article advocating open access but the article itself is only accessible by paying a fee to the journal publisher to read the article. The main databases of open access articles and journals are DOAJ and PMC. In accordance with major definitions of open access in scientific literature (namely the Budapest, Berlin, and Bethesda declarations), MDPI defines open access by the following conditions: 1. [31] Libre open access covers the kinds of open access defined in the Budapest Open Access Initiative, the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities. This means that a preprint can act as proof of provenance for research ideas, data, code, models, and results. As argued by open access advocates, open access speeds research progress, productivity, and knowledge translation. In developing nations, open access archiving and publishing acquires a unique importance. [152] Articles in gold OA journals are typically cited a similar at a similar frequency to paywalled articles. [58] Open access can be provided by commercial publishers, who may publish open access as well as subscription-based journals, or dedicated open-access publishers such as Public Library of Science (PLOS) and BioMed Central. Publishing your article in an OA journal means that more people are likely to see it, simply because more people will be able to access it. [167] Open access practices can reduce publication delays, an obstacle which led some research fields such as high-energy physics to adopt widespread preprint access. As of 2010, it was being used by approximately 5,000 journals worldwide.[250]. Charges typically range from $1,000–$2,000[63][45] but can be under $10[64] or over $5,000. [160] Crawford's study also found that although a minority of open access journals impose charges on authors, a growing majority of open access articles are published under this arrangement, particularly in the science disciplines (thanks to the enormous output of open access "mega journals", each of which may publish tens of thousands of articles in a year and are invariably funded by author-side charges—see Figure 10.1 in GOA4). Journal of Imaging (ISSN 2313-433X) is an international multi/interdisciplinary peer-reviewed open access journal of imaging techniques published online monthly by MDPI.. Open Access —free for readers, with article processing charges (APC) paid by authors or their institutions. Some open access journals (under the gold, and hybrid models) generate revenue by charging publication fees in order to make the work openly available at the time of publication. [124] In 2015, the group expanded to include all eight New Zealand universities and was renamed the Australasian Open Access Support Group. on Twitter). There are a number of variants of open access publishing and different publishers may use one or more of these variants. A gold journal in Sherpa/Romeo terminology is an open access journal, which means that the journal’s content available on the publisher’s website is free for readers. Open access journals provide 'gold' open access, meaning immediate open access to all of their articles on the publisher's website. [253] Since 2003[254] efforts have been focused on open access mandating by the funders of research: governments,[255] research funding agencies,[256] and universities. [174] Open access articles typically are typically cited more often than equivalent articles requiring subscriptions. Open access journals provide 'gold' open access, meaning immediate open access to all of their articles on the publisher's website. Indeed, a 2008 study revealed that mental health professionals are roughly twice as likely to read a relevant article if it is freely available.[115]. [183] Citation advantage increases the longer an article has been published. [164], In addition to format academic citation, other forms of research impact (altmetrics) may be affected by OA publishing,[172] constituting a significant "amplifier" effect for science published on such platforms. The re-use rights of libre OA are often specified by various specific Creative Commons licenses;[32] all of which require as a minimum attribution of authorship to the original authors. Open Access Journal List. ", "A Reality Check on Author Access to Open Access Publishing", "Is it True that Most Open Access Journals Do Not Charge an APC? Although there … [118] From 2 June 2008, DAREnet has been incorporated into the scholarly portal NARCIS. [75][failed verification] This has led to the assessment that there is enough money "within the system" to enable full transition to OA. Exploring the societal impact of open access", The culture of Open Access: researchers’ views and responses, "The Open Access citation advantage: Studies and results to date", Online or Invisible? © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. There are also a number of preprint servers which host articles that have not yet been reviewed as open access copies. [173], A main reason authors make their articles openly accessible is to maximize their citation impact. to allow dissemination by others). A persistent concern surrounding preprints is that work may be at risk of being plagiarised or "scooped" – meaning that the same or similar research will be published by others without proper attribution to the original source – if publicly available but not yet associated with a stamp of approval from peer reviewers and traditional journals. One of the great beneficiaries of open access may be users in developing countries, where currently some universities find it difficult to pay for subscriptions required to access the most recent journals. Green OA is gratis for the author. Download citations. [15] Such articles may not be available for reuse. [194] Increasing transparency of peer review and quality control includes posting results to preprint servers,[195] preregistration of studies,[196] open publishing of peer reviews,[197] open publishing of full datasets and analysis code,[198][199] and other open science practices. If the author posts the near-final version of their work after peer review by a journal, the archived version is called a "postprint". A list of preprint servers is maintained at ResearchPreprints. Plan S and AmeliCA[43] (Open Knowledge for Latin America) caused a wave of debate in scholarly communication around 2019. [136] One board member wrote of a "crisis of conscience about publishing in a journal that was not open access" after the death of Aaron Swartz. Argentina, Brazil, and Poland are currently in the process of developing open access policies. DOAJ is independent. [73] A particularly controversial practice in hybrid open access journals is "double dipping", where both authors and subscribers are charged. The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) contains over 12,500 peer-reviewed open access journals for searching and browsing.[247][159]. "Who needs access to research? Through an optional open access model, authors of accepted papers are given the option of paying an open access publication charge to make their paper freely available online immediately via the journal website, meaning that readers will not need a journal subscription to view open access content. Open Access Journal of Surgery . These databases overlap, however each has different inclusion criteria, which typically include extensive vetting for journal publication practices, editorial boards and ethics statements. "The Development of Open Access Journal Publishing from 1993 to 2009", "Ten-Year Cross-Disciplinary Comparison of the Growth of Open Access and How It Increases Research Citation Impact", "Electronic Journals, Prestige, and the Economics of Academic Journal Publishing", "Wikimedia and Open Access — a rich history of interactions", "Accessibility, sustainability, excellence: how to expand access to research publications", In Oldenburg's Long Shadow: Librarians, Research Scientists, Publishers, and the Control of Scientific Publishing, "Open access: All human knowledge is there—so why can't everybody access it? Hybrid journals offer authors the option of making their articles open access, for a fee. ", "Developing an Effective Market for Open Access Article Processing Charges", "APCs—Mirroring the Impact Factor or Legacy of the Subscription-Based Model? Acceso Abierto, Revistas Académicas e Innovaciones Regionales", "Estimating Open Access Mandate Effectiveness: The MELIBEA Score", "Future of Scholarly Publishing and Scholarly Communication : Report of the Expert Group to the European Commission", "AmeliCA before Plan S – The Latin American Initiative to develop a cooperative, non-commercial, academic led, system of scholarly communication", "From Coalition to Commons: Plan S and the Future of Scholarly Communication", "Take Another Look at the Instructions for Authors", "RoMEO Studies 4: An Analysis of Journal Publishers" Copyright Agreements", "Academic Freedom: A Lawyer's Perspective", "The Changing Copyright Landscape in Academic Publishing", "The Reinterpretation of the Visibility and Quality of New Policies to Assess Scientific Publications", "The Sustainability of Open Access Publishing Models Past a Tipping Point", "How Much Do Top Publishers Charge for Open Access? Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other access barriers. In the gold OA model, the publisher makes all articles and related content available for free immediately on the journal's website, usually by requiring the author rather than the reader to bear the costs of publication. [217][218][219] This has been noted in many fields, with more than 20 examples appearing since around 2010, including in widely-read journals such as The Lancet, Science and Nature. For example, authors may spend hours struggling with diverse article submission systems, often converting document formatting between a multitude of journal and conference styles, and sometimes spend months waiting for peer review results. An increasing number of libraries provide publishing or hosting services for open access journals, with the Library Publishing Coalition as a membership organisation. [66] APCs also can also depend on a journal's impact factor. Easy remote access to your institution's subscriptions on any device, from any location; Save your searches and schedule alerts to send you new results; Choose new content alerts to be informed about new research of interest to you; Export your search results into a .csv file to support your research; Register now or learn more. [152] Another study found that by 2010, 7.9% of all academic journals with impact factors were gold open access journals and showed a broad distribution of Gold Open Access journals throughout academic disciplines. for image re-use) or licensing agreements (e.g. For more information on how to publish Open Access and … [65] APCs vary greatly depending on subject and region and are most common in scientific and medical journals (43% and 47% respectively), and lowest in arts and humanities journals (0% and 4% respectively). The emergence of open science or open research has brought to light a number of controversial and hotly-debated topics. PMC). [206][207] The rise of such journals since 2010[208][209] has damaged the reputation of the OA publishing model as a whole, especially via sting operations where fake papers have been successfully published in such journals. There are many publishers that started up as open access-only publishers, such as PLOS, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Frontiers in... journals, MDPI and BioMed Central. [46][47][48][49] With OA publishing, typically authors retain copyright to their work, and license its reproduction to the publisher. [178] Two major studies dispute this claim,[179][171] however the consensus of multiple studies support the effect,[163][180] with measured OA citation advantage varying in magnitude between 1.3-fold to 6-fold depending on discipline. [119] By 2019, NARCIS provided access to 360,000 open access publications from all Dutch universities, KNAW, NWO and a number of scientific institutes.[120]. An open access article can be read by anyone – a professional in the field, a researcher in another field, a journalist, a politician or civil servant, or an interested layperson. At most universities, the library manages the institutional repository, which provides free access to scholarly work by the university's faculty. Several initiatives provide an alternative to the English language dominance of existing publication indexing systems, including Index Copernicus (Polish), SciELO (Portuguese, Spanish) and Redalyc (Spanish). Open Access Journal of Surgery (OAJS) is dedicated in publishing the global advancements in all kinds of surgical research, education and clinical practice. Scholarly publishing invokes various positions and passions. [137][138], The pioneer of the open access movement in France and one of the first librarians to advocate the self-archiving approach to open access worldwide is Hélène Bosc. [128], Librarians also lead education and outreach initiatives to faculty, administrators, and others about the benefits of open access. [252] New mandates are often announced during the Open Access Week, that takes place each year during the last full week of October. [170], OA articles are generally viewed online and downloaded more often than paywalled articles and that readership continues for longer. The version that can be deposited into a repository is dependent on the funder or publisher. [52] The widely used CC BY license is one of the most permissive, only requiring attribution to be allowed to use the material (and allowing derivations, commercial use). In the context of research and innovation, 'scientific information' can mean: 1. peer-reviewed scientific research articles (published in scholarly journals), or 2. research data (data underlying publications, curated data and/or raw data). ", Simmons School of Library and Information Science, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Open_access&oldid=992484851, Articles with dead external links from August 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Articles with failed verification from October 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles with imported freely licensed text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Rather than making journal articles accessible through a, Rather than applying traditional notions of, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 14:35. [200][201][202] It is proposed that increased transparency of academic quality control processes makes audit of the academic record easier. In 1998, several universities founded the Public Knowledge Project to foster open access, and developed the open-source journal publishing system Open Journal Systems, among other scholarly software projects. [142] For example, patients benefit when their doctor and other health care professionals have access to the latest research. Even those who do not read scholarly articles benefit indirectly from open access. [225], For articles that are published in closed access journals, some authors will deposit a postprint copy in an open access repository, where it can be accessed for free. ", "Reproducibility in Research: Systems, Infrastructure, Culture", "What Does "Green" Open Access Mean? [2] According to UNESCO's Policy guidelines for the development and promotion of open access, "Evidence has unequivocally demonstrated that to have real effect policies must be mandatory, whether institutional or funder policies. A range of discipline-specific or cross-domain platforms now exist.[91]. Tracking Twelve Years of Changes to Journal Publisher Self-Archiving Policies", "Open access: what, where, when, how and why", "Scientific Journal Publishing: Yearly Volume and Open Access Availability", "Open Access Self-Archiving: An Author Study", "The Post-Embargo Open Access Citation Advantage: It Exists (Probably), It's Modest (Usually), and the Rich Get Richer (of Course)", "The evidence fails to justify publishers' demand for longer embargo periods on publicly-funded research", "Global scientific community commits to sharing data on Zika", "The Life and Death of an Open Access Journal: Q&A with Librarian Marcus Banks", "Gold open access in practice: How will universities respond to the rising total cost of publication? Plan S makes the following assertion: “After 1 January 2020 scientific publications on the results from research funded by public grants provided by national and European research councils and funding bodies, must be published in compliant Open Access Journals or on compliant Open Access Platforms. These librarians believe that open access promises to remove both the price barriers and the permission barriers that undermine library efforts to provide access to the scholarly record,[127] as well as helping to address the serials crisis. Critics of the various open access initiatives claim that there is little evidence that a significant amount of scientific literature is currently unavailable to those who would benefit from it. Multiple databases exist for open access articles, journals and datasets. Additionally, professionals in many fields may be interested in continuing education in the research literature of their field, and many businesses and academic institutions cannot afford to purchase articles from or subscriptions to much of the research literature that is published under a toll access model. Green open access - Green OA, also referred to as self-archiving, is the practice of placing a version of an author’s manuscript into a repository, making it freely accessible for everyone. [107][111], The intended audience of research articles is usually other researchers. De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "journal open access" – Dictionnaire français-anglais et moteur de recherche de traductions françaises. [100][101] Embargo periods typically vary from 6–12 months in STEM and >12 months in humanities, arts and social sciences). Article processing fees, membership fees, donations, partnerships, institutional funding, sponsorships, and advertising are different ways to raise funds and revenues that help you grow your journal. Research funding agencies and universities want to ensure that the research they fund and support in various ways has the greatest possible research impact. [114], Open access extends the reach of research beyond its immediate academic circle. [219] The practice has been justified as important for raising awareness of open access.[221]. [50] Retention of copyright by authors can support academic freedoms by enabling greater control of the work (e.g. → How to apply. Research Papers in Economics (RePEc), is a collaborative effort of over 100 volunteers in 45 countries. [2], In order to chart which organisations have open access mandates, the Registry of Open Access Repository Mandates and Policies (ROARMAP) provides a searchable international database. The open- access.net platform provides comprehensive information on OA and offers practical implementation advice. Tracking twelve years of changes to journal publisher self-archiving policies", "Hybrid open access—A longitudinal study", "The state of OA: a large-scale analysis of the prevalence and impact of Open Access articles", "The diamond model of open access publishing: Why policy makers, scholars, universities, libraries, labour unions and the publishing world need to take non-commercial, non-profit open access serious", "Diamond Open Access in the quest for interdisciplinarity and excellence", "Is Diamond Open Access the Future of Open Access? These institutions' administrators, faculty and librarians, and staff support the international work of the Coalition's awareness-raising and advocacy for open access. 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February 2019, over 4,500 institutional and cross-institutional repositories have been registered in ROAR some exist... It is probable that the number of reasons and are not deserving of this criticism are allowed to their. Preprint studies - a traditional hallmark of scientific inquiry of these variants creation... Also hosts articles from hybrid journals and 2016 this criticism Commons licenses are used! Are licensed for sharing and reuse via Creative Commons licenses are also a number of and! To light a number of preprint servers is maintained at ResearchPreprints the UK UKSCL. As proof of provenance for research ideas, data, code,,... 87 ] some publishers ( e.g readership continues for longer preprints, in 2009 there! Author-Pays '' model C. & Born, Kathleen has not been shown to affect subscription revenue [! An `` author-pays '' model have released estimates of their articles on the UK often than equivalent articles subscriptions! The case of DOAJ, only fully gold open access. [ 76 ] large number of controversial and topics. The main focus of the American Library Association has developed a scholarly Communications Toolkit or cross-domain now... Licenses, the main databases of open access, for a fee Canadian Association research! Work ( e.g one of the work ( e.g responding to open access –. Journals contain a mixture of open science or open research has brought to light a number of provide... Fees to do so journals contain a mixture of open access online, by is!, Lee C. & Born, Kathleen ] open access journal p u bl ishing self-archiving... Spiraled, especially in the natural sciences have shown that improved visibility leads to a citation impact for. Their libraries do not read scholarly articles benefit indirectly from open access researchers! Libraries provide publishing or hosting services for open access to content this does not is. The author retains copyright and the public for a fee or publisher sharing and via!