When the main Arab army reached the Persian borders, Yazdegerd III procrastinated in dispatching an army against the Arabs. Arabs vs Persians, Sunni vs Shi'a - "hatred" vs reality ... Syrian children were taught about the glories of Arab history, not the legitimacy of the Alawites or some kind of Shi'a brotherhood. Umar refused to take any chances; he never perceived the Persians as being weak, which facilitated the speedy conquest of the Persian Empire. Yazdegerd himself narrowly escaped to China.The Muslims had now reached the outermost frontiers of Persia. “Iranian” is a geographic term, and also refers to a nationality. Nu'aym then marched 240 kilometres (150 mi) northeast towards Qom, which was captured without much resistance. Umar was assassinated in November 644 by a Persian slave named Piruz Nahavandi. But if you do not agree to either choice, then, by Allah, I will send to you people who crave death as much as you crave life.” [25] Khalid did not receive any responses and continued with his tactical plans. Al-Muthanna ibn Haritha went to Medina to inform Abu Bakr about his success and was appointed commander of his people, after which he began to raid deeper into Mesopotamia. However, Persian did incorporate a certain amount of Arabic vocabulary, especially words pertaining to religion, and it switched from the Pahlavi scripts to a modified version of the Arabic alphabet. If I were to put their differences in a nutshell, I would say Iran is a robust nation with a strong sense of nationhood, united by a common sense of Persian heritage, whereas the Arab world is a divided and seemingly dysfunctional confederation of warring tribes and nations spanning across two continents and 20 plus states, divided by accents and religious sectarianism, yet beaming with the potential of … With the success of all three missions, the advance into Armenia came to an end with the death of Umar in November 644. It was this Persian Islam, rather than the original Arab Islam, that was brought to new areas and new peoples: to the Turks, first in Central Asia and then in the Middle East in the country which came to be called Turkey, and of course to India. • Categorized under Culture | Difference Between Arabs and Persians. No effective ruler followed Khosrau II, causing chaos in society and problems in the provincial administration, until Yazdegerd III rose to power. When Aparviz went to Rabi ibn Ziyad to negotiate a treaty, he saw that Rabi was using the bodies of two dead soldiers as a chair. However, the first real invasion took place in 650, when Abd-Allah ibn Amir, having secured his position in Kerman, sent an army under Mujashi ibn Mas'ud there. The Ottoman Turks brought a form of Iranian civilization to the walls of Vienna.[55]. [23] With the success of the raids, a considerable amount of booty was collected. In 644, al-'Ala' once again attacked Fars from Bahrain, reaching as far as Estakhr, until he was repulsed by the Persian governor (marzban) of Fars, Shahrag. The Muslim army first concentrated at Tazar, and then defeated the Persians at the Battle of Nahavand in December 642. In the latter part of 638, Hormuzan, who was one of the seven great chiefs of Persia, and had commanded a corps at the Battle of Qadisiyyah, intensified his raids in Mesopotamia. Iran has religious leadership in the Arab world, with many of the main seats of Shia scholarship. The Persians then withdrew to Hulwan. MYTH: Persians and Arabs are one-and-the-same. After the devastating defeat at Nahavand, the last Sassanid emperor, Yazdegerd III, fled to different parts of Persia to raise a new army, with limited success, while Umar attempted to capture him. The Sassanid dynasty came to an end with the death of Yazdegerd III in 651. It is considered to be one of the largest and most diverse ethnic groups in the world. Conversion to Islam was gradual and incentivized over a period of centuries with some never converting still to this day; however, there were cases of Zoroastrian scriptures being burnt and some priests being executed, particularly in areas that experienced violent resistance. Al-'Ala quickly prepared an army which he divided into three groups, one under al-Jarud ibn Mu'alla, the second under al-Sawwar ibn Hammam, and the third under Khulayd ibn al-Mundhir ibn Sawa. Peace be upon him, who seeks truth and expresses belief in Allah and in His Prophet and testifies that there is no god but Allah and that He has no partner, and who believes that Muhammad is His servant and Prophet. As a matter of practicality, the jizya replaced the Sassanid poll taxes, which tended to be much higher than the jizya. Meanwhile, Uthman's empire expanded beyond the borders of the Sassanid Empire, to Transoxiana, Baluchistan, and the Caucasus. During Abu Bakr's era, Khalid ibn al-Walid had left Mesopotamia with half his army of 9000 soldiers to assume command in Syria, whereupon the Persians decided to take back their lost territory. The Arabs initially settled in the garrison towns rather than on scattered estates. 643, Uthman ibn Abi al-As seized Bishapur, which signed a peace treaty. Most persians speak farsi and do not speak arabic. The enemy commander, Shahrvaraz Jadhuyih, along with another Sasanian general, was killed during the battle. Within four years, Yazdgerd III felt powerful enough to challenge the Muslims again for control of Mesopotamia. With regards to Persia, Muslim histories further recount that at the beginning of the seventh year of migration, Muhammad appointed one of his officers, Abdullah Huzafah Sahmi Qarashi, to carry his letter to Khosrau II inviting him to convert: In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. On the northeastern borders of the Empire, in Mesopotamia, the situation was rapidly deteriorating. The rise of Muslims coincided with an unprecedented political, social, economic, and military weakness in Persia. Without opposition, the Arabs had time to consolidate and fortify their positions. The Muslims had conquered Byzantine Armenia in 638–639. He is also believed to be the mastermind behind Umar's assassination in 644. History in the Islamic Period – Encyclopaedia Iranica", Medo-Babylonian conquest of the Assyrian Empire, Ministry of Intelligence and National Security, Industrial Development and Renovation Organization (IDRO), Iran Aviation Industries Organization (IAIO), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Muslim_conquest_of_Persia&oldid=992881518, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from June 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Articles with incomplete citations from October 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 16:31. In return for his life, he agreed to surrender his estates in Azerbaijan and persuade others to submit to Muslim rule. Persian Armenia, north of Azerbaijan, remained in Persian hands, along with Khurasan. Ctesiphon, the capital of the Sassanid Empire, fell in March 637 after a siege of three months. Ahnaf returned to Merv and sent a detailed report of his success to the anxiously-waiting Umar, and sought permission to cross the Oxus river and invade Transoxiana. "[5] By 651, most of the urban centers in Iranian lands, with the notable exception of the Caspian provinces (Tabaristan) and Transoxiana, had come under the domination of the Arab armies. [74] During this period, Iran saw the development of massive metropolises, some reaching population numbers of up to 200,000 people. Arabs speak Arabic and all varieties of Arabic; Persians speak Iranian languages and dialects. He has the same rights and duties that we have. In ca. The Muslim army was forced to leave the conquered areas and concentrate on the border. But Iran, or Persia, Khalid received a call for aid from northern Arabia at Dawmat al-Jandal, where another Muslim Arab general, Iyad ibn Ghanm, was trapped among the rebel tribes. Akram. Azerbaijan then surrendered to Caliph Umar, agreeing to pay the annual jizya. The Plague of Sheroe (627–628) was one of several epidemics that occurred in or close to Iran within two centuries after the first epidemic was brought by the Sasanian armies from its campaigns in Constantinople, Syria, and Armenia. Herat was a fortified town, and the resulting siege lasted for a few months before it surrendered, bringing the whole of southern Khorasan under Muslim control. [13] Rapid turnover of rulers and increasing provincial landholder (dehqan) power further diminished the Sassanids. Again Umar sent simultaneous expeditions to the far north-east and north-west of the Persian Empire, one to Khurasan in late 643 and the other to Armenia. The relationship between Arabs and Persians has always been a source of controversy, not only owing to the contemporary power struggle in the region, but also because of a long history of rivalry that formed an integral part of the national psyche of both people. It is now widely believed that the annexation of the Lakhmid kingdom was one of the main factors behind the fall of the Sasanian Empire and the subsequent Islamic conquest of Persia, as the Lakhmids agreed to act as spies for the Muslims after being defeated in the Battle of Hira by Khalid ibn al-Walid.[14]. Particularly, Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf (661–714) officially changed the administrative language of Iraq from Middle Persian (Pahlavi) to Arabic. [71] Moreover, Muslim missionaries did not encounter difficulty in explaining Islamic tenets to Zoroastrians, as there were many similarities between the faiths. Pourshariati's central thesis is that contrary to what was commonly assumed, the Sassanian Empire was highly decentralized, and was in fact a "confederation" with the Parthians, who themselves retained a high level of independence. The same thing soon happened to the second group. Making Al-Hirah the objective of Khalid, Abu Bakr sent reinforcements and ordered the tribal chiefs of northeastern Arabia, Al-Muthanna ibn Haritha, Mazhur bin Adi, Harmala and Sulma to operate under Khalid's command. The work of Iranians can be seen in every field of cultural endeavor, including Arabic poetry, to which poets of Iranian origin composing their poems in Arabic made a very significant contribution. The inhabitants of Sakastan used this opportunity to rebel, defeating the Muslim garrison at Zrang. The Persians had withdrawn to Persia proper, east of the Zagros mountains. While Heraclius prepared for a major offence in the Levant, Yazdegerd ordered the concentration of massive armies to push the Muslims out of Mesopotamia for good through a series of well-coordinated attacks on two fronts. According to Thomas Walker Arnold, for the Persian, he would meet Ahura Mazda and Ahriman under the names of Allah and Iblis. Umar ordered his army to retreat to the Arabian border and began raising armies at Medina for another campaign into Mesopotamia. Loosely speaking, non-Arab populations which spoke Semitic languages (Hebrew, Aramaic, Coptic, Assyrian, Phoenician etc.) It is interesting to notice that there was much cooperation between Sassanids and non-Muslim Arabs during the Muslim conquest period, which shows that those wars were not Arab vs. Persian, rather Muslim vs. non-Muslims. Arab Muslims conquests have been variously seen in Iran: by some as a blessing, the advent of the true faith, the end of the age of ignorance and heathenism; by others as a humiliating national defeat, the conquest and subjugation of the country by foreign invaders. Some meanings have been overlapping in their meanings. Written by baharmedia on December 16, 2016 in New Blog “Iranian” and “Persian” mean two separate things. “Arab” is a word which has had many meanings over the past centuries. After the devastating defeat at Nahavand, the last Sassanid emperor, Yazdegerd III, fled to different parts of Persia to raise a new army, with limited success, while Umar attempted to capture him. [70], Muslim leaders in their effort to win converts encouraged attendance at Muslim prayer with promises of money and allowed the Quran to be recited in Persian instead of Arabic so that it would be intelligible to all. Hudheifa marched from Rey in central Persia to Zanjan, a well-fortified Persian stronghold in the north. The Khan of Farghana, realizing that fighting against the Muslims might endanger his own kingdom, withdrew from the alliance and pulled back to Farghana. Several fortified Persian armies were still active north-east of Ctesiphon at Jalawla and north of the Tigris at Tikrit and Mosul. The Persian ruler Khosrau II (Parviz) defeated a dangerous rebellion within his own empire, the Bahram Chobin's rebellion. Owing to the critical situation, Umar wished to command the army personally, but the members of Majlis ash-Shura demurred, claiming that the two-front war required Umar's presence in Medina. Language is considered to be one of the most important identifying factors for Arabs. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail, Written by : Nimisha Kaushik. 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