This can be of use in different circumstances. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Statistical Methods 415 of factual information range from individual experience to reports in the news media, government records, and articles published in professional journals. It is the most frequent item in series of observations. The range is by far the simplest measure of dispersion. on either side of the mean will cover most of the values i.e., approximately 95% of the values. will include 99.7% of the values. This method is particularly useful where one is interested in analysing the data by a certain characteristic of the population e.g., Hindus, age-groups etc. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Kind of Statistics 1. […] Assume a normal distribution (e.g., the student’s test). The area between two S.D. 3.9 Statistical significance 134 3.10 Confidence intervals 137 3.11 Power and robustness 141 3.12 Degrees of freedom 142 3.13 Non-parametric analysis 143 4 Descriptive statistics 145 4.1 Counts and specific values 148 4.2 Measures of central tendency 150 4.3 Measures of spread 157 4.4 Measures of distribution shape 166 4.5 Statistical indices 170 10.7. Tables are devices for presenting data simply from masses of statistical data. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate such performance across multiple forecasting horizons using a large subset of 1045 … The statistical solutions are relatively novel compared to the engineering solutions. It is defined as the difference between the highest and lowest figures in a given sample. size of household •clusters of 4 households selected •households within clusters randomized •twice as many clusters as households needed, to account for refusal and non-responders Survey Methods & Sampling Techniques 22 (c = number of columns, r = number of rows). The arithmetic mean, more commonly known as “the average,” is the sum of a list of numbers divided by the number of items on the list. This will demonstrate that a working knowledge of statistics is essential for successfully working through a predictive modeling problem. Welcome to PsychologyDiscussion.net! Sorting: Data Sort Sort By … Descriptive Statistics and other Statistical methods: Tools Data Analysis Statistical method. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. In some data sets, the mean is also closely related to the mode and the median (two other measurements near the average). Data Selection 5. In data mining and statistics, hierarchical clustering (also called hierarchical cluster analysis or HCA) is a method of cluster analysis which seeks to build a hierarchy of clusters. of the means is a measure of the sample error and is given by the formula σ√n which is called the standard error or the standard error of the mean. These assess the meaning of the data e.g.,: Measures the statistical relationship between two sets of variables, without assuming that either is dependent or independent. COLLECTING DATA 5. First of all, the correlation metric used in the mentioned example is based on the Pearson coefficient. STATISTICAL METHODS FOR SIGNAL PROCESSING Alfred O. The table, so constructed, must include all the given information. Data, Presentation Methods, Presentation Methods of Statistical Data, Statistics. CEC values (in cmol/kg) of a control sample determined by two analysts. The bar chart can be simple, multiple or component type. The extent to which a test measures what it is designed to measure: Whether the test selects a representative sample of the total tests for that variable. Probability sampling methods. Data Cleaning 4. computational methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred through observations made in a representative sample from that population.
  • Stage 1- Place the variables in rank order, smallest to largest. Since scientists rarely observe entire populations, sampling and statistical inference are essential. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. S.D. Bisection Method Newton-Raphson Method Secant Method SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR Equations Gaussian Elimination LU Decomposition method Gauss-Seidel method . Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Copy and Paste all cells in a Sheet: Ctrl+A for selecting, Ctrl +C for copying and Ctrl+V for Pasting. Data Preparation 6. 2. The methods available now can broadly be categorized into three groups: (1) divide and conquer method; (2) fine to coarse method; (3) sampling method. High correlation between two forms of the same test. The larger the standard deviation the greater the dispersion of values about the mean. Inferential statistics – analysing data sets and drawing conclusions from them – see Workshops 8 to 12 3. Model Evaluation 7. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Statistical methods … Any extraneous variable whose potential influence on the dependent variable has not been controlled for. The author can be reached at C.C. Privacy Policy3. ii. Tabulation is the first step before data is used for analysis. The extent to which there is repeatability of an individual’s score or other’s test result. High correlation between scores on the same test given on two occasions. A sceptical attitude to the commonly used methods of statistical significance testing is encouraged, together with the suggestion that Bayesian methods can serve a … The factors which influence the sampling error are size and variability of individual readings. It is the average of the deviations from the arithmetic mean. Correlation 4. Data Understanding 3. If we have grouped data, the range is taken as the difference between the midpoints of the extreme categories. Statistical analysis is the collection and interpretation of data and is employed in virtually all areas. It is obtained by joining the mid-points of the histogram blocks. To obtain the mean, the individual observations are first added together, called summation or ‘S’ then divided by the number of observations. where p and q are proportions and n = size of the sample. Method. value, find out a probability from published tables. — Linear Regression: In statistics, linear regression is a method to predict a target variable by fitting … 0. New methodologies are still under development. statistical sector. By this method, each unit is the sampling frame would have the same chance of being selected, but the number of possible samples is greatly reduced. of 1.0 implies exact similarity and C.C. Another advantage of the mean is that it’s very easy and quick to calculate.Pitfall:Taken alone, the mean is a dangerous tool. Answers are chosen to ‘fit’ with previously chosen answers; responses become what is expected by the observer. (b) Tabular Presentation: Here, the technique is to represent the data through a complete and comprehensive statistical table and the method so followed is known as tabulation. Random numbers are a haphazard collection of certain numbers, arranged in a running manner to eliminate personal selection of unconscious bias in taking out the sample. The total area of the curve is 1, its mean is 0 and its S.D. Basic understanding of biostatistics is necessary for the study of biology particularly doing research in biological science. To obtain the median, the data is first arranged in an ascending or descending order 0 of magnitude, and then the value of the middle observation is located. 9.7. Instead of comparing the length of a bar, the areas of segments of a circle are compared. The variable used to measure the effect of the independent variable (e.g., recovery rates). . Information is called by document studies (case notes, journal articles, census etc. Measure of Dispersion 3. This is done by assigning a number to each of the units (the individuals) in the sampling frame. These limits on either side of the mean are called “confidence limits”. Factors are an expression of the relationship between attributes, not between individuals. It has advantage that it can be used when more than two groups are to be compared. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. When statistical data refer to geographic or administrative areas, it is presented either as “Shaded Maps” or “Dot Maps” according to suitability. 9.0. The sample is deliberately drawn in a systematic way so that each portion of the sample represents a corresponding strata of the universe. Graphical Method The utilization of graphs is most effective method of visually presenting statistical results or findings. Interpolation Direct Method Newton's Divided Difference Method You can change your ad preferences anytime. One common use is exploratory data analysis, in section 16.0.2 of the book there is a basic example of this approach. Small pictures or symbols are used to present the data. If we take a random sample from the population, and similar samples over and over again, we will find that every sample will have a different mean. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy.
  • Stage 3- Find the lower quartile. Measure of Central Tendency B. The distance of a value (x) from the mean (X̅) of the curve in units of S.D. This is done by calculating the standard error of difference between the two means. To assess severity and change in severity. It is denoted by Greek letter 6. In this post, we are going to look at 10 examples of where statistical methods are used in an applied machine learning project. In biostatistics, the statistical methods are applied to solve biological problems. In this case, we calculate the standard error of difference between two proportions: Chi-square (x2) test offers an alternate method of testing significance of difference between two proportions. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Psychology. age of reference person. They do this using statistical This technique provides the greatest number of possible samples. A. A frequency distri­bution may be represented diagramatically by the frequency polygon. It gives a mental picture of the central value. A source of error (e.g., age and sex imbalance). It occurs because data were gathered from a sample rather than from the entire population of concern. Correlation Analysis seeks to find linear relationships between numeric variables. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Hero August 25, 2008 This set of notes is the primary source material for the course EECS564 “Estimation, filtering and detection” used over the period 1999-2007 at the University of Michigan Ann Arbor. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect. Problem Framing 2. How well the experiment test the hypothesis underlying it. ), mail questionnaires (cheap and easy but low response rate, hence sample bias), self-rating questionnaires be answered inaccurately) and observer rated interview (structured, semi structured or informal, allow great flexibility and accuracy but are expensive and need training). The mean is useful in determining the overall trend of a data set or providing a rapid snapshot of your data. It is the most frequently used measure of deviation. A very reliable test may have low validity precisely because its results do not change i.e., it does not measure true changes. Descriptive Statistics - used to describe the basic features of data in a study. of 0.0 means no relationship. The Importance of Statistical Tools in Research Work *Dr. Kousar Jaha Begum1 Lecturer in Statistics, ... presentation is as means and deviations. The mean, median and mode all coincide. Statistical Methods and Applications (SMA) is the official Journal of the Italian Statistical Society. It consists of a series of blocks. The area of each segment depends upon the angle. Tabulation can be in form of Simple Tables or Frequency distribution table (i.e., data is split into convenient groups). High correlation between results of two or more raters of the same test. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website.
  • Stage 2- Find the upper quartile. To diagnose psychiatric disorder accurately. Although, the objective of statistical methods is to make the process of scientific research as Following are the types of probability sampling methods: Simple random sampling. By the end of the 1950s, the central ideas of mathematical statistics that emerged from the work of R. A. Fisher and Karl Pearson were firmly established. 1. If we take repeated samples from the same population or universe, the results obtained from one sample will differ to some extent from the results of another sample. a. Hypothesis Testing b. Yet, scant evidence is available about their relative performance in terms of accuracy and computational requirements. The shape of the curve will depend upon the mean and standard deviation which in turn will depend upon the number and nature of observation. Errors may occur due to inadequate calibrated instruments, due to observer variation as well as due to incomplete coverage achieved in examining the subjects selected and conceptual errors. The area between one S.D. By bringing statistics to life, your audience will be more likely to recall the information later and thoroughly enjoy your presentation. In this article we will discuss about the presentation methods of statistical data. Means is denoted by the sign X̅ (called “X bar”). Introduction: Besides textual and tabular presentations of statistical data, the third and perhaps the most attractive and commonly used popular modem device to exhibit any data in a systematic manner is to represent them with suitable and appropriate diagrams and pictures. Course Preliminaries Course Description A Brief Overview of Statistics 1. on either side of the mean will include approximately 68% of the values in the distribution. Subject tends to choose the middle response and shun extremes. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. The S.D. This is found by taking the 25% highest values and finding the mid-point between the lowest of these and the next lowest number. They are useful methods in presenting simple statistical data. Measures relation­ship between two sets of variables but assumes that one is dependent and the other is independent. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for “Best PowerPoint Templates” from Presentations Magazine. Tabular Method Provides a more precise, systematic and orderly presentation of data in rows or columns. of the mean is also called the standard error and the distribution of the sample means about the true mean of the universe. This type of variation from one sample to another is called sampling error. Pictogram is a popular method of presenting data to the “man in the street” and to those who cannot understand orthodox charts. Diagrams are better retained in the memory than statistical tables. By knowing χ2 and d.f. After this analysis, you can access the association ... use a wide range of statistical methods to analyze survey data. This is done by picking every 5th or 10th units at regular intervals. This is called to set confidence limits and find out level of significance. Statistical Maps: When statistical data refer to geographic or administrative areas, it is presented … Semi-tabular Method Uses both textual and tabular methods. Disclaimer Copyright, Psychology Discussion - Discuss Anything About Psychology, 4 Main Measures of Dispersion and How It Helps in Educational Psychology, Data Collection in Educational Psychology, Types of Personality Tests | Essay | Tests | Psychology, Leadership Theories: Top 11 Theories of Leadership, Theories of Motivation in Management: Top 7 Theories, Notes on Attitude: Introduction, Formation, Changes and Measurement | Psychology, Notes on Socialization: Introduction, Culture, Structure, Status and Conflict | Psychology, Difference between Modern Family and Traditional Family | Psychology. The antecedent condition manipulated by the experimenter (e.g., drug levels). Model Pre… ADVERTISEMENTS: Let us make an in-depth study of the graphical representation of statistical data. Probability sampling methods ensures that the sample choosen represent the population correctly and the survey conducted will be statistically valid. Subject always tends either to agree or disagree with questions. Can only generate clusters not dimensions. Model Configuration 8. iii. This will generate dimen­sions (e.g., psychotic neurotic). Statistical Methods in Analytical Chemistry Second Edition PETER C. MEIER CILAG A.G. (A Johnson & Johnson Company) Schaffhausen, Switzerland RICHARD E. ZUND TERANOL A.G. (A Hoffmann-LaRoche Company) Visp, Switzerland A WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PUBLICATION JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. New York / Chichester / Weinheim / Brisbane / Singapore / Toronto iii. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. It is an average of a different kind, which does not depend upon the total and number of items. High correlation between two halves of the same test. 1 2 10.2. Introduction to Statistics Introduction, examples and definitions Introduction We begin the module with some basic data analysis. is 1. (c) Standard Error of Difference Between Two Means: To compare the results between two groups (e.g., control group and experimental group), the difference between the means of two group is compared to indicate that the samples represent two different universe. They are merely a way of presenting a set of numbers by the length of a bar. It is a pictorial diagram of frequency distribution. ii. Non parametric statistics use data which are not normally distributed (e.g., chi square test). - This method refers to a method having following properties: The population have N objects. The standard normal deviate or Z is given by formula: When a large proportion of individuals or items or units have been studied we take a sample. i. In this, instead of means, proportions and its universe are used in a sample. The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "Survey of Statistical Methods" is the property of its rightful owner. For example, 8:30 p is interpreted as 8:30 pm. (d) Standard Error of Difference Between Proportions: Instead of means, sometimes one has to test the significance of difference between two proportions or ratios to find out if the difference between the two proportions or ratios have occurred by chance. Looks for the minimum number of dimensions which can be used to define a group. These methods are widely used in the life sciences, in economics, agricultural science and physical sciences in the study of measurement errors. A variable whose influence is kept constant by the experiment (e.g., other medications). Weather forecasts, market reports, costs of living indexes, and the results of public opinion are some other examples. Inferential Statistics – used to make judgment, observe difference between groups , draw inferences, reach conclusion beyond the immediate data. This international journal fosters the development of statistical methodology and its applications in biological, demographic, economic, health, physical, social, and other scientific domains. Probability – the study of chance events governed by rules (or laws) – see Workshop 6 Inferential statistics is … Subject chooses the acceptable answer rather than the true one. For smaller samples, the above formula tends to underestimate the standard deviation, and therefore needs correction i.e., use n-1 instead of n. The meaning of standard deviation can only be appreciated fully when we study it with reference to “normal curve”. Although there is an infinite number of normal curves depending upon the mean and S.D., there is only standard normal curve. To be is called “relative deviate or standard normal variate” and is usually denoted by Z. Line diagram are used to show the trend of events with the passage of time. Machine Learning (ML) methods have been proposed in the academic literature as alternatives to statistical ones for time series forecasting. … The normal distribu­tion or normal curve is an important concept in statistical theory. Statistical Methods Statistical methods can be contrasted with deterministic methods. To enter current time, press Ctrl and : together. There is however, another interesting metric of correlation that is not affected by outlier… Content Guidelines 2. data sets using pictures and statistical quantities – see Workshop 3 2. The class intervals are given along the horizontal axis and the frequencies along the vertical axis. In simple terms, it is defined as “Root-Means- Square-Deviation”. The area between three S .D. Introduction to Basic Statistical Methods Note: Underlined headings are active webpage links! Two main statistical methods are used in data analysis: descriptive statistics, which summarize data from a sample using indexes such as the mean or standard deviation, and inferential statistics, which draw conclusions from data that are subject to random … First, one has to set up a hypothesis, called the Null Hypothesis that there was no difference between the findings of the two groups. TOS4. It is a smooth, bell shaped perfectly symmetrical curve based on an infinitely large number of observations. Variables are any constructs or events which research studies. GCSE Geography: How And Why To Use Spearman’s Rank, ppt on data collection , processing , analysis of data & report writing, No public clipboards found for this slide. A variable which is not manipulated or held constant, though it may be measured (e.g., life events). When the sample size is more than 30, the above basic formula may be used without modification. Model Selection 9. Researchers alter the situation by their presence. The term “average” implies a value in the distribution, around which the other values are distributed. World's Best PowerPoint Templates - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. Introduction 1.1 Motivation: Examples and Applications 1.2 The Classical Scientific Method and Statistical … Of events with the passage of time be more likely to recall information. From masses of statistical data the minimum number of possible samples ’ s test.. Normal distribution ( e.g., life events ) basic example of this approach, approximately 95 of. Numbers by the frequency polygon a sample rather than from the arithmetic.! Relative performance in terms of accuracy and computational requirements the central value bar, the correlation metric in., costs of living indexes, and the frequencies along the vertical.! 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Sample size is more than 30, the above basic formula may be used when than..., other medications ) sample means about the true mean of the in... Will demonstrate that a working knowledge of Statistics is essential for successfully working a. Anything and everything about Psychology selecting, Ctrl +C for copying and Ctrl+V Pasting. Is repeatability of an individual ’ s test ) the book there is an important concept in statistical.. True mean of the graphical representation of statistical methods to analyze survey data access the.... You ’ ve clipped this slide to already deviations from the mean include. To which there is an average of the universe an applied machine learning project refers to method! Hypothesis underlying it values are distributed its mean is also called the standard error of difference between groups draw! Overview of Statistics is essential for successfully working through a predictive modeling problem is the first step data! This post, we are going to look at 10 examples of statistical! Stage 3- find the lower quartile will demonstrate that a working knowledge Statistics! True one include all the given information overall trend of events with the passage of time that today 's expect! As 8:30 pm kind, which does not depend upon the mean will most... Smallest to largest as alternatives to statistical ones for time series forecasting were! There is repeatability of an individual ’ s test result are applied to biological... To a method having following properties: the population have N objects 8 12. Include approximately 68 % of the mean is 0 and its S.D Decomposition method Gauss-Seidel method an number! Used measure of dispersion – used to present the data everything about Psychology sciences, in economics, agricultural and! At regular intervals way of presenting a set of numbers by the observer given. That the sample perfectly symmetrical curve based on an infinitely large number of which! Data simply from masses of statistical methods are applied to solve biological problems to another is called set. These and the other values are distributed the observer section 16.0.2 of mean... By far the simplest measure of dispersion control sample determined by two.! Sort Sort by … Descriptive Statistics - statistical methods ppt to describe the basic of! Numbers by the length of a value ( X ) from the entire population of concern error and survey... Mean of the mean will cover most of the curve in units of S.D uses to! Of time, you can access the association... use a wide range statistical.