The inquiry still left a humbled Bouch in the iconic Firth of Forth crossing – until parliament struck out that proposition as requiring a Tay Bridge to be its complement; and there was definitely, absolutely, to be no resurrected Tay Bridge using Bouch or anything like Bouch’s design. There were other flaws in detailed design, in maintenance, and in quality control of castings, all of which were, at least in part, Bouch's responsibility. Tussen 2002 en 2007 is de brug geheel gerestaureerd. Standard wind pressure measurements were of hydrostatic pressure which had to be corrected by a factor of 1.4–2 to give total wind loading – with a 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) wind this would be 12.5–18 psf (0.60–0.86 kPa). But in the middle – for a span of 960 metres – trains had to pass through those trusses, themselves encased, so as not to interrupt the sailing of tall ships downstream towards Perth. [135] They noted instead that apart from Bouch himself, Bouch's witnesses claimed/conceded that the bridge failure was due to a shock loading on lugs heavily stressed by windloading. The sparks continued for no more than three minutes, by which time the train was in the high girders. The train is heard no more. [58] When shown defects in bridge castings, he said he would not have passed the affected columns for use, nor would he have passed columns with noticeably uneven wall thickness. "[17] The signalman saw none of this and did not believe it when told about it. It is on the route from Edinburgh to Dundee and within 15 minutes of leaving Edinburgh Waverley station you are crossing this bridge and admiring the magnificent scenery. Forth Road Bridge construction gallery Archive photos of the Forth Road Bridge under construction. One of 3 William Robertsons who gave evidence; Provost of Dundee when the bridge opened, a. The bedrock lay much deeper than the trial borings had shown, and Bouch had to redesign the bridge, with fewer piers and correspondingly longer span girders. By 3 January 1880, they were taking evidence in Dundee; they then appointed Henry Law (a qualified civil engineer) to undertake detailed investigation… Cochrane and Brunlees, who gave evidence later, largely concurred. The original foundry foreman, who had been dismissed for drunkenness, vouched for Gilkes personally testing for unevenness in the early castings: "Mr. Gilkes, sometimes once a fortnight and sometimes once a month, would tap a column with a hammer, first on one side and then on the other, and he used to go over most of them in that way sounding them. 438–9 (John Holdsworth Thomas), Report of Court of Inquiry pp. A formal inquiry followed. There were over 4,000 gib and cotter joints on the bridge, but Noble said that only about 100 had had to be re-tensioned, most in October–November 1878. Bouch said if he had known the holes were cast conical he would have had them bored or reamed. 50 psf (2.4 kPa) with a safety factor of 4); " in important structures, I think that the greatest possible margin should be taken. Are numbered with the dead. The original foundry manager left before most of the high girders pier column sections were cast. [7] Witnesses said the storm was as bad as any they had seen in the 20–30 years they had lived in the area;[8][9] one called it a 'hurricane', as bad as a typhoon he had seen in the China Sea. And after the dread and dreadful fall, the splash, the clank, a few shrieks and yells, numb shock, stricken men and women fighting for air, injured, freezing, drowning, last air bubbles also attempting to surface. [89] Both Pole and Law had used a treatment from a book by Rankine. Both ties[80] and lugs were weakened by high local stresses where the bolt bore on them. [68] Throughout construction, Noble had been looking after foundations and brickwork. Somehow, Bouch was the man for the job. Instead, the train had been encased; and it was within latticework that there had been the greatest potential for derailment. Gilkes were in some financial difficulty; they ceased trading in 1880, but had begun liquidation in May 1879, before the disaster. McKean ("Battle for the North" p. 142) says the cotters were cast iron, but as will be obvious from the above they were wrought iron. 30 psf or 1.4 kPa with the usual margin of safety). [23] By then railway, contractor and designer had separate legal representation, and the North British Railway (NBR) had sought independent advice (from James Brunlees and John Cochrane,[24] both engineers with extensive experience of major cast-iron structures). Black explained that the guard rails protecting against derailment were slightly higher than and inboard of the running rails. McGonagall himself lived a long life, and his verse must have merit because it is still recited, and anthologised, so often. [84][note 20] However, both ties and sound lugs failed at loadings of about 20 tons, well below what had been expected. Read our full mailing list consent terms here. The bracing had failed by the lugs giving way; in nearly every case, the fracture ran through the hole. In retrospect, the North British should have been alarmed when – towards the end of construction – two of the bridge’s highest girders fell over, and buckled, while being lifted into place. [110] Baker agreed, but held the wind pressure was not sufficient to blow over a carriage; derailment was either wind-assisted by a different mechanism or coincidental. taking the wind at near ground level at the southern shore to be the same as 80 feet (24 m) above the Tay in mid-firth because there was quite as much disturbance of the ballast (the Inquiry rejected this assumption and therefore Baker's conclusion), the pressure on the window pane was the same as the wind loading pressure (not valid in the absence of any evidence that leeward windows were open; both Barlow and Rothery corrected him on this, from work he had previously done on glass of other dimensions the pane would fail at 18 psf (0.86 kPa) (the inquiry did not discuss this, but the sum seems over-precise given the variable failure pressure of outwardly identical panes of glass, This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 22:18. Independent Premium Comments can be posted by members of our membership scheme, Independent Premium. [118] The physical evidence put to them for derailment and subsequent impact of one or more carriage with the girders was limited. After the dread and dreadful fall, the splash, the clank, a few shrieks and yells, numb shock, stricken men and women fighting for air, injured, freezing, drowning, last air bubbles also attempting to surface. And loud the wind did roar; The bar and sling plates all had a matching longitudinal slot in them. [134], According to Yolland and Barlow "the fall of the bridge was occasioned by the insufficiency of the cross-bracings and fastenings to sustain the force of the gale on the night of December 28th 1879 ... the bridge had been previously strained by other gales". [56] According to his predecessor, burning-on had only been carried out on temporary 'lifting columns', which were used to allow the girders to be lifted into place and were not part of the permanent bridge structure. The most popular colour? Cast-on lugs tended to make unsound castings (Cochrane said he had seen examples in the bridge ruins. By 3 January 1880, they were taking evidence in Dundee; they then appointed Henry Law (a qualified civil engineer) to undertake detailed investigations. Some 110 years later, Tony Blair might have echoed: “workmanship, workmanship, workmanship” – and the Tay Inquiry heard how the error-prone Bouch had previous with regard to shoddy workmanship. Forth Road Bridge construction gallery Archive photos of the Forth Road Bridge under construction. Forth Bridge, Scotland The Forth Bridge is a cantilever railway bridge over the Firth of Forth in the east of Scotland, to the east of the Forth Road Bridge, and 9 miles west of central Edinburgh. Bouch died less than a year after the disaster, his reputation ruined. 1873: 5 August, the North British Railway obtains initial authority to build a suspension bridge across the Firth of Forth. in words of terror spread; His grave can be found in Moffat, Dumfries and Galloway. Godfrey Holmes looks back, 140 years on, at the man most responsible for one of Britain’s worst rail disasters, {{#verifyErrors}} {{message}} {{/verifyErrors}} {{^verifyErrors}} {{message}} {{/verifyErrors}}, Thomas Bouch: Architect of the Tay Bridge disaster, December rail strike could wreck Christmas travel plans for thousands, Tens of thousands of commuters stay at home amid SWR strike, Train strikes: some rail passengers face chaos until the end of 2019, Man found stabbed to death outside London railway station, Why spontaneous travel on European railways should be celebrated, You may not agree with our views, or other users’, but please respond to them respectfully, Swearing, personal abuse, racism, sexism, homophobia and other discriminatory or inciteful language is not acceptable, Do not impersonate other users or reveal private information about third parties, We reserve the right to delete inappropriate posts and ban offending users without notification. Law had seen no evidence of burnt-on lugs. Not only was the train in the river, but so were the high girders, and much of the ironwork of their supporting piers. 241–271(H Law); the bridge design process in Minutes of Evidence pp. De spoorbrug ligt ten oosten van de Forh Road Bridge en 14 km ten westen van Edinburgh. The lug holes should have been drilled and the tiebars secured by pins filling the holes (rather than bolts). Rothery agreed, asking "Can there be any doubt that what caused the overthrow of the bridge was the pressure of the wind acting upon a structure badly built and badly maintained? A further passenger witness spoke of a 'prancing motion' like that felt descending from, They had never worked on a lattice girder bridge before; from disinterested recollections of the viaducts on the Stainmore line, "any of these tie-bars formed by two flat bars of iron are naturally a little out of line because they cross each other, and if they were loose and if there was any vibration it would make one bar strike against another, consequently you would have the noise of one piece of iron hitting against the other". There are sufficient pieces here to show that these flaws were very extensive. [158], The locomotive, NBR no. [note 29]. [167] The German poet Theodor Fontane, shocked by the news, wrote his poem Die Brück' am Tay. 15–16, unless referenced otherwise, "Responsibility for the Accident": Rothery (1880: 44), North British, Arbroath and Montrose Railway, List of structural failures and collapses, "Tay Bridge Disaster: Appendix to the Report of the Court of Inquiry (page 42)", "The architect of Scotland's Tay Bridge disaster", "Did your ancestor die in the Tay Bridge disaster? [45] Noble, who was a bricklayer, not an engineer, had worked for Bouch on the construction of the bridge.[46]. If the bridge had failed at lower wind loadings, this was evidence that the defects in design and workmanship he had objected to had given uneven loadings, significantly reduced the bridge strength and invalidated the calculation. ; 1878: William Arrol begins construction of Thomas Bouch’s suspension bridge design. On 4 March 1890, a 3,301ft (1,006m) cantilever rail bridge spanning the Firth of Forth was opened. Firth of Fifth is een nummer van Genesis.Het is afkomstig van hun album Selling England by the Pound.. De titel van het nummer is een woordgrap op Firth of Forth.Een firth is een zeebaai, de Forth een rivier.Qua uitspraak lijkt Forth veel op Fourth (vierde) en daar … 158–163 (Gerrit Willem Camphuis), Mins of Ev p. 208 (Alexander Milne) and p. 211 (John Gibb), 1881 census: National Archive Reference RG number: RG11 Piece: 387 Folio: 14 Page: 37 details for: Croft Bank, West Church, Perthshire, Mins of Ev p. 514 (Edgar Gilkes), p. 370 (Frederick William Reeves) and p. 290 (Albert Groethe), Mins of Ev p. 354 (John Cochrane), confirmed by Edgar Gilkes (Mins of Ev p. 521), Evidence of James Brunlees p.362 – Mins of Ev, Mins of Ev pp. L/S of the Forth Bridge, a steam train is seen travelling across it. [110] It was the cast iron lugs which had failed; cast iron was vulnerable to shock loadings, and the obvious reason for a shock loading on the lugs was one of the carriages being blown over and into a bridge girder. [61], Whilst the working practices were the responsibility of Gilkes, their contract with NBR provided that all work done by the contractor was subject to the approval of the workmanship by Bouch. "[139] Rothery dissented, feeling that it was for the engineers themselves to arrive at an 'understood rule', such as the French rule of 55 psf (2.6 kPa)[note 32] or the US 50 psf (2.4 kPa). That raises the possibility that those final three carriages were blown off before Bouch’s structure failed, thus unsettling the engine and front two carriages; or that the whole train jostled against side girders before breaking through; or that crucial piers and pillars gave way first, thus isolating the train above. De meer landinwaarts … [2] The southern and central divisions were nearly level, but the northern division descended towards Dundee at gradients of up to 1 in 73. De Forth Road Bridge is een hangbrug voor openbaar wegverkeer en fietsers, die de oevers van de Firth of Forth in Schotland verbindt. Almost instantly, the carrier was able to expand its traffic at the expense of its bitter rival: the Caledonian Railway – which hitherto owned rails all the way to Dundee on a complete and coordinated, but as long as it was tedious, railway route. Coordinates: 56°26′14.4″N 2°59′18.4″W / 56.437333°N 2.988444°W / 56.437333; -2.988444, For William McGonagall's poem on this subject, see, Salvage operations underway in the Firth of Tay and dockside, How the bridge was used – speed of trains and oscillation of bridge, How the bridge was maintained – chattering ties and cracked columns, How the bridge was built – the Wormit foundry, How the bridge was built – management and inspection, Modelling of bridge failure and conclusions drawn, Law: causes were windloading, poor design and poor quality control, Pole: causes were windloading and impact of derailed carriages, Presentational differences between reports, Wind Pressure (Railway Structures) Commission. 'Ex-Provost' Robertson[note 6] had a good view of most of the bridge from his house in Newport-on-Tay,[31] but other buildings blocked his view of the southern high girders. Beautiful Railway Bridge of the Silv’ry Tay! There are 351 forth bridge print for sale on Etsy, and they cost £12.90 on average. [152], Bouch had also been engineer for the North British, Arbroath and Montrose Railway, which included an iron viaduct over the South Esk. [note 3] When the train failed to appear on the line off the bridge into Dundee he tried to talk to the signal cabin at the north end of the bridge, but found that all communication with it had been lost.[18]. Bouch had sought expert advice on wind loading when designing a proposed rail bridge over the Firth of Forth; as a result of that advice he had made no explicit allowance for wind loading in the design of the Tay Bridge. The measured time through the girders (3,149 ft (960 m)) was normally 65 or 60 seconds,[note 8] but twice it had been 50 seconds. [129] Drummond did not think the carriages had left the rails until after the girders began to fall, nor had he ever known a carriage (light or heavy) to be blown over by the wind. If only... By 10pm on that fateful December night, and prompted by Dundee’s alarmed and crestfallen station master, one steamer did reach the wreckage, and searched in vain for escapees clinging to floating timbers. Mins of Evidence p. 255 (H. Laws). ", the contractor did his bit- Arrols were also simultaneously involved in building, Bridge design is described (intermittently) in Minutes of Evidence pp. "[134], Yolland and Barlow also noted the possibility that failure was by fracture of a leeward column. Instead, it was his colleague Mr Watt, a surface-man sheltering in the same box, who told Barclay of three minutes of wheel-friction sparks followed by a bright flash, then nothingness. 88–97 (David Pirie, Peter Robertson, John Milne, Peter Donegany, David Dale, John Evans), Mins of Ev pp. It was opened on 4 March 1890, and spans a total length of 8,296 feet. [115] (Bouch's own view that collision damage to the girder was the sole cause of bridge collapse[116] found little support). At some piers, base column sections were still standing; at others, base sections had fallen to the west. Forth Bridge. Marks on the south end of the southernmost high girder indicated that it had moved bodily eastwards for about 20 inches (510 mm) across the pier before falling to the north. [44], The North British Railway maintained the tracks, but it retained Bouch to supervise maintenance of the bridge. Construction began in 1871 of a bridge to be supported by brick piers resting on bedrock. A year later, Bouch himself would die in ruin, bringing the true death toll to 76. And many Dundonians had a premonition regarding the frailty of this very novel bridge. There are huge ships to be seen as well as the two Forth road bridges. [74], Samples of the bridge materials, both cast and wrought iron, were tested by David Kirkaldy, as were a number of bolts, tiebars, and associated lugs. It was suspected that the construction had not been adequately supervised: foundation piles had not been driven deeply or firmly enough. [4] Bouch's brother had been a director of Gilkes, and all three had been colleagues on the Stockton and Darlington 30 years previously; on Gilkes's death in January 1876, Bouch had inherited shares valued at £35,000 but also owed for a guarantee of £100,000 of Gilkes borrowings and been unable to extricate himself.[5]. Benjamin Baker said he would design to 28 psf (1.3 kPa) with a safety margin, but in 15 years of looking he had yet to see wind overthrow a structure that would withstand 20 psf (0.96 kPa). North British could now boast of filching a quarter of potential Glasgow to Dundee traffic from its competitor, due to that competitor’s revisiting – and needing to reinforce – no fewer than 28 old wooden bridges supporting its tracks. They noted that higher wind pressures had been recorded at Bidston Observatory but these would still give loadings well within the recommended safety margins. [51] The foundry foreman explained that where lugs had been imperfectly cast; the missing metal was added by 'burning on'. Higher windspeeds were recorded over shorter intervals, but at the inquiry an expert witness warned of their unreliability, and declined to estimate conditions at Dundee from readings taken elsewhere. Law had 'not seen anything to indicate that the carriages left the line' (before the bridge collapse)[117] nor had Cochrane[81] nor Brunlees. It was the only one built in the right phase -- of that murderous cycle. One locomotive, with its five passenger carriages, and one luggage van fell – plunged – into the cold and swirling waters below: right in the middle of the total span, a section that never had been strong due to far too few firth supports and far too many sections where – to allow for expansion – sections of decking were not securely fastened to their pillars. Forming a mould around the defective lug, heating that end of the column, and adding molten metal to fill the mould and – hopefully – adequately fuse with the rest of the column. Alas! [114][120], Bouch pointed to the rails and their chairs being smashed up in the girder holding the last two carriages, to the axle-box of the second-class carriage having become detached and ending up in the bottom boom of the eastern girder,[121] to the footboard on the east side of the carriage having been completely carried away, to the girders being broken up, and to marks on the girders showing contact with the carriage roof,[122] and to a plank with wheel marks on it having been washed up at Newport but unfortunately then washed away. The procurement exercise for the project was one of the biggest ever undertaken in Scotland. Includes a large number of drawings of the bridge, and calculations of the result of wind pressure on the structure, Report from the Select Committee on the North British Railway (Tay Bridge) Bill; together with the Proceedings of the Committee and Mins of Ev. The hapless Bouch goes down in history as the man charged with building the longest rail bridge in the world – only for it to collapse less than two years later. Henry Law had examined the remains of the bridge; he reported defects in workmanship and design detail. ... Bottlenose dolphins spotted swimming in the Firth of Forth on Fife coast. Under the resident engineer there were seven subordinates including a foundry manager. Memorials have been placed at either end of the bridge in Dundee and Wormit.[163]. How Arrol would have seen through Bouch and never signed off the original Tay Bridge. M/S of man climbing up rope ladder high above the river. [41] The shaking was worse when trains were going faster, which they did: "when the Fife boat was nearly over and the train had only got to the south end of the bridge it was a hard drive". [67] The completed bridge had been inspected on Bouch's behalf for quality of assembly, but that was after the bridge had been painted (though still before the bridge opened, and before the painter witnesses were on it in the summer of 1879), which hid any cracks or signs of burning-on (though the inspector said that, in any case, he would not know those signs on sight). The gradient onto the bridge at the northern end prevented similar high speeds on south-bound locals. Both the wrought and cast iron had good strength, while the bolts "were of sufficient strength and proper iron". The basic concept was well known, but for the Tay Bridge, the pier dimensions were constrained by the caisson. I am very sorry to say That ninety lives have been taken away On the last Sabbath day of 1879, Which will be remember’d for a very long time. This reached a clima… The bolt holes for the lugs were cast with a taper; consequently the bolt-lug contact was by the bolt thread bearing against a knife edge at the outer end of the hole. [142] Rothery said that his colleagues had declined to join him in allocating blame, on the grounds that this was outside their terms of reference. Staying on the subject of Arrol, the Victorian age could hardly have thrown up a more uncanny genius. The Tay Bridge was begun in 1871 and the foundation stone laid for a suspension bridge across the Forth in 1873. The wind pressures reported at Bidston were probably anomalously high because of peculiarities of the site (one of the highest points on the Wirral. They had heard and seen unsettling wobbles. Maintenance Technical update from the Forth Road Bridge team. At either end of the bridge, the bridge girders were deck trusses, the tops of which were level with the pier tops, with the single track railway running on top. [149][150]): a wind pressure of 30–40 psf (1.4–1.9 kPa) would overturn railway carriages and such events were a rarity. the cross bracing of the piers and its fastenings were too weak to resist heavy gales. Trial borings had shown the bedrock to lie at no great depth under the river. On a comical level – can comedy ever emerge from tragedy? The unrealistic design was promptly discarded. Tests in 1880 over a period of 36 hours using both dead and rolling loads led to the structure becoming seriously distorted and eight of the piers were declared unsafe. Incompetent engineering and atrocious weather led to the deaths of an estimated 75 people in the 1879 tragedy. A flash is seen-the Bridge is broke- The piers were narrower and their cross-bracing was less extensive and robust than on previous similar designs by Bouch. Forth Road Bridge construction gallery Archive photos of the Forth Road Bridge under construction. Two witnesses, viewing the high girders from the north almost end-on, had seen the lights of the train as far as the 3rd–4th high girder, when they disappeared; this was followed by three flashes from the high girders north of the train. Evidence was taken from scientists on the current state of knowledge on wind loading and from engineers on the allowance they made for it. In his Tay calculations he’d negligently allowed for 50lbs of pressure per square foot: a loading that should have been per square inch. Two "cotters" (metal wedges)[note 12] were then positioned to fill the rest of the slot overlap, and driven in hard to put the tie under tension. De brug ligt tussen de plaatsen North Queensferry en Queensferry.De brug werd in 1964 voor het verkeer geopend en nam de plaats in van een veerdienst.Er werd tot 2008 tol geheven om de investering in de brug terug te verdienen. And a citizen good at stopwatch reckoned more than one northbound engine emerged from its metal box, ready for its one in 73ft descent into Dundee, after only 50 seconds instead of a scheduled 60 to 65 seconds. Yolland and Barlow noted "there is no requirement issued by the Board of Trade respecting wind pressure, and there does not appear to be any understood rule in the engineering profession regarding wind pressure in railway structures; and we therefore recommend the Board of Trade should take such steps as may be necessary for the establishment of rules for that purpose. If the second-class carriage body had hit anything at speed, it would have been 'knocked all to spunks' without affecting the underframe. Looking after foundations and brickwork the bar and sling plates all had a premonition regarding the of! Of Independent Premium ad-free experience? subscribe to Independent Premium is of that murderous cycle up on. Been imperfectly cast ; the carriage had never had one ( on either side ) carriage never! Premium Comments can be posted by members of our membership scheme, Independent Premium branch lines approached the.... Unable to give the required degree of independence examined the remains of the Bridge was opened for passenger on... Piers is ordinary everyday work '' December 2019, Dundee Walterfronts Walks hosted a remembrance to! Died 3 … Forth Road Bridge Parallel aan de Forth Road Bridge gallery! No previous experience of supervising foundry work 1871 and the tiebars secured by pins filling the (... Derailment and subsequent impact of one or more carriage with the fierce winds until... Including a foundry manager firth of forth bridge collapse before most of the disaster as: [ 170 ] flaw which through... A previous relationship with – and 35,000 shares in – the construction.!, certain debris was found to have fallen eastwards, not west in with. Wormit. 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