The recent loss of entire stands of long-lived, high-elevation whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis Engelm., as a result of the mountain pine beetle (figure 4) underscores the need for greater understanding of climate change effects on complex interactions important to ecosystem resiliency and stability. Y Gibson Powell CB When used in conjunction with quantitative models that are based on a mechanistic understanding of biological responses to temperature, results can provide insight into ecosystem responses to climate change. Miller SJ JS ME . Matsuoka Nearly 70,000 trees were reported under attack that year. Diapause not only offers a mechanism to keep insects synchronized with their environment and food availability but also provides tolerance to environmental extremes (Tauber et al. Mountain pine beetle outbreak populations are currently restricted to pine forests in the western United States, central British Columbia and west-central Alberta. JA KF . Kozlov TR Carroll Logan Although detailed information on temperature-dependent physiological processes is not available for the majority of bark beetle species in the southwestern United States and Mexico, many of these species are currently limited by climate rather than host availability, suggesting a high potential for range expansion northward. Potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of North American trees, US national climate change assessment on forest ecosystems: An introduction, Climate change and forests of the future: Managing in the face of uncertainty, Environmental change and carbon limitation in trees: A biochemical, ecophysiological and ecosystem appraisal, Cold-hardiness of adult and larval spruce beetles, Evaluation of the hydrological cycle over the Mississippi River basin as simulated by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM), Risk Assessment of the Threat of Mountain Pine Beetle to Canada's Boreal and Eastern Pine Forests, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service. Although the mechanisms connecting drought stress to bark beetle outbreaks are not well understood in western North American ecosystems, it is clear that effects will vary regionally and by bark beetle-host species complex because of differences in critical feedbacks driving beetle population dynamics, as well as physiological differences among tree species. JT What I saw is LIVING PROOF. . None of these outbreaks was as intense as the 1990s outbreak, which has killed most of the large white and Sitka/Lutz spruce on the southern Kenai Peninsula. BJ Because pine hosts extend beyond the current mountain pine beetle range, and because the beetle is a known polyphage, we also provide projections of the potential for expansion into pine forests of northern, central, and eastern Canada and the eastern United States. JA Particular places of new activity include the areas along the North Arm of Naknek Lake and north of Lake Coville, east of the American River. . 2006), and mountain pine beetle in high-elevation forests (Bentz and Schen-Langenheim 2007). Schen-Langenheim KF Trees and shrubs are invading alpine tundra at a rate of up to 10 feet per year, and woody plants are barging in on ancient peat bogs. Rapid genetic adaptation of insects to seasonal changes in temperature has already been documented (Balanyá et al. McKenney In addition to directly affecting tree death through carbon starvation and cavitation of water columns within the xylem, climatic water stress can have profound effects on tree susceptibility to bark beetle attack. . Klepzig DL JC Mattson As Alaska continues to experience a warming climate recent studies also indicate that spruce bark beetle outbreaks may become more frequent. In the model, if annual adult emergence occurs before 1 June or after 30 September for three or more consecutive years, that temperature time series is considered maladaptive. A warming climate has powered the explosion of the spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum) in the same areas where the bark beetle took off, on the south side of Kachemak Bay. Herms . SA CJ Some species, such as the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, and the piñon ips, Ips confusus LeConte, produce more than one generation per year. Though the dramatic outbreak has slowed since then, nearly a decade later we are still feeling its effects. Full access to this synthesis, range predictions for mountain pine beetle attack favored by climate change change components Dale. To carry associated nematodes ( Cardoza et al currently restricted to pine forests in Matanuska-Susitna... 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