They have a semantic function and visual rhetoric function, can convey meanings as an independent expressing modality (Jibril and Abdullah, 2013), and, through the combination of different emoji, can express subtler semantics (López and Cap, 2017). The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. This paper summarizes the developmental process, usage features, functional attributes, and fields of research related to emoji. Recently, we used emoji as a tool to engage young children in child well-being research. Emojineering part 1: machine learning for emoji trends. Dominant meanings of facial emoji: insights from Chinese consumers and comparison with meanings from internet resources. (2017). The nonverbal communication functions of emoticons in computer-mediated communication. 26, 3–25. This paper systematically summarizes the differences of emoji in terms of individual diversity, cultural diversity, platform diversity, and their inefficiency in use. (2019) has introduced emoji into the process of depression assessment and found that accuracy of identifying depression was significantly improved. (2018) found that emoji can also be used in analyzing the sentiment of Arabic tweets. Studies have found that emoji on the IOS platform are more aesthetically attractive, familiar, clear and meaningful than those on the Android platform (Rodrigues et al., 2017). Media Cult. Smiley, often used in advertisements and product packaging, can encourage positive moods and improve morale (Stark and Crawford, 2015). doi: 10.1080/10911359.2018.1437103. Examining the influence of emoji on consumer reactions to advertising. Furthermore emoji are also used to depict consumer emotions (Li et al., 2014). doi: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0432-0.ch014, Guthier, B., Ho, K., and El Saddik, A. doi: 10.1111/j.1552-3934.2011.02099.x, Petra, K. N., Jasmina, S., Borut, S., and Igor, M. (2015). it's so easy,” in Paper Presented at the 1st International CIKM Workshop on Topic-Sentiment Analysis for Mass Opinion (Hong Kong). (2016). (2017). doi: 10.1016/j.dcm.2018.03.009, Aldunate, N., and Gonzálezibáñez, R. (2016). Comput. All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read, and approved the submitted version. Furthermore, using emoji can improve communication between doctors and patients and also enhance patients' abilities to manage their own health (Balas et al., 2012; Troiano and Nante, 2018). doi: 10.1145/3308560.3316548, Lim, S. S. (2015). Cues filtered in, cues filtered out, cues cute, and cues grotesque: teaching mediated communication with emoji pictionary. “Language-independent data set annotation for machine learning-based sentiment analysis,” in Paper Presented at the Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), 2017 IEEE International Conference on. Emoji use is partly influenced by a range of national developmental indicators (including life expectancy, tax rates, trade and GDP per capita). 10.3233/978-1-61499-696-5-239, Barbieri, F., Kruszewski, G., Ronzano, F., and Saggion, H. (2016b). doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2885.2010.01362.x, Dunlap, J. C., Bose, D., Lowenthal, P. R., York, C. S., Atkinson, M., and Murtagh, J. (2017a). At present, research focuses on the description of users' preference for emoji, but fails to go deeply into the underlying reasons. By the early 1980s, this symbol had become widespread, emerging as a permanent feature of western popular culture (Stark and Crawford, 2015). The sentiment lexicon approach focuses on building an emoji emotional lexicon to support text sentiment analysis. The use of Emoji is influenced by demographic characteristics and individual psychological characteristics. The role of emotion in computer-mediated communication: a review. Emoji show a high degree of context sensitivity in cross-language communication, meaning that they are exceedingly dependent on their linguistic and textual environment (Vandergriff, 2013). Discourse Context Media 2, 149–155. Users in different countries will use emoji with specific national or ethnic meanings (Gaspar et al., 2016). doi: 10.1016/j.dcm.2018.07.001, Al-Azani, S., El-Alfy, E.-S. M., and IEEE. Measurement of product emotions using emoji surveys: case studies with tasted foods and beverages. Due to its visual characteristics or platform differences, there would be emotional or semantic ambiguity in communication. 36, 637–649. Pop. “Smiley face: why we use emoticon stickers in mobile messaging,” in Paper Presented at the 18th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction With Mobile Devices and Services Adjunct. Finally, different system platforms also lead to differences in emoji usage. (2017). Because of their rich emotional meanings, emoji are often used to express emotions in online communication. Beyond positive or negative: qualitative sentiment analysis of social media reactions to unexpected stressful events. Different social networking platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, Gab and Instagram also have their own particular patterns of emoji usage. Fonseca J. Commun. Nonverbal Behav. Food Res. Int. As indicates, emoji fill the need for non-verbal cues in CMC to express the intentions and emotions behind information (Alshenqeeti, 2016). Specifically, negative emojis were negatively correlated with emotional stability, while positive emoji were positively correlated with extraversion. Their diversity of semantics and flexibility of interpretation may lead to ambiguity when using them (Jaeger et al., 2019). Hum. Categories, semantic, and emotional functions of emoji. A growing body of research explores emoji, which are visual symbols in computer mediated communication (CMC). The difference in how emoji are understood results in inefficiency in communication, leads to the interruption of discourse and destroys interpersonal relationships (Tigwell and Flatla, 2016). Jaeger and Ares (2017) analyzed 33 facial emojis and found that most emoji can express one or more emotions. They are different in that the former needs a human annotated corpus while the latter doesn't. doi: 10.18653/v1/W19-1311. Same same but different!? doi: 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.523, Aull, B. “How cosmopolitan are emojis? This other atmosphere: against human resources, emoji and devices. Emoji show a high degree of contextual sensitivity and different language types influence the use of emoji. A preliminary study of the form and status of passionate affection emoticons. Research has also shown that Japanese teenagers find innovative new ways to use emoji so as to manage their relationships and express themselves aesthetically in a subculturally specific way (Sugiyama, 2015). The argument that I decided to use for this assignment talks about emoji’s and how that might have more meaning than one person thinks. doi: 10.1109/SocialCom-PASSAT.2012.119, Wang, Z., Cui, X., Gao, L., Yin, Q., Ke, L., and Zhang, S. (2016). In this paper, we investigated the usage of Emoji characters on social networks and the impact of Emoji in 367 Volume 9, Number 1, June 2017 International Journal of Computer Electrical Engineering 68, 397–410. doi: 10.18653/v1/D17-1169, Fernandez-Gavilanes, M., Juncal-Martinez, J., Garcia-Mendez, S., Costa-Montenegro, E., and Javier Gonzalez-Castano, F. (2018). Language@ Internet 17. Lastly, he points out the people who campaign getting rid of the gun on phone aren’t doing it for safety of the children and being concerned about violence. It has been found that the use of emoji in classroom activities will help students better understand what they have learned (Brody and Caldwell, 2019), especially in computer-mediated teaching (online learning Dunlap et al., 2016). Emoji play an important role in attracting attention, stimulating social interactions and enhancing the experience of consumers, along with their willingness to purchase (Das et al., 2019). J. Lang. Statistics for articles on emoji published in journals and delivered at conferences. Based on their emotional distribution, Petra et al. doi: 10.1016/j.tele.2018.06.005, Prasad, A. G., Sanjana, S., Bhat, S. M., Harish, B. S., and IEEE. Khandekar, S., Higgs, J., Bian, Y., Ryu, C. W., Talton, J. O., Kumar, R., et al. Emoji can help young children understand abstract concepts such as security, interpersonal management and emotions and also improve their ability to express themselves (Fane, 2017; Fane et al., 2018). 119, 895–907. Sentiment analysis of text is a valuable tool used to identify and classify bodies of text for various purposes, including public sentiment detection in political campaigns, spam detection and threat assessment. Using the original 256 character American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) set,1 initial forays into digital communication were laborious at best, … “Combining emojis with Arabic textual features for sentiment classification,” in Paper Presented at the 2018 9th International Conference on Information and Communication Systems (ICICS) (Irbid). (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2013.01.001. Distraction and facilitation: the impact of emotional sounds in an emoji oddball task. Similar studies have found that users tend to use more emoji more in positive messages than negative messages. Ambiguity and misunderstanding may occur in different situations and cultural backgrounds. Theory 20, 249–268. Emoticons present facial expressions by various combinations of punctuation marks and can be used in CMC. While many think they are ready for a business research project, they somehow always get stuck at the very first step: choosing business topics. Berengueres and Castro (2017) found that there are differences in understanding negative emoji. Although males and females understand the function of emoji similarly (Herring and Dainas, 2018), females use emoji more frequently and positively (Prada et al., 2018) while males use more types of emoji (Tossell et al., 2012). Psychol. Soc. This paper suggests emoji are the seminal workings of a nuanced, rebus-type language, one serving to inject emotion, creativity, ambiguity – in other words ‘humanity’ - into computer mediated communications. doi: 10.1037/ppm0000219, Das, G., Wiener, H. J. D., and Kareklas, I. Liu, K.-L., Li, W.-J., and Guo, M. (2012). Res. Compared with plain text, emoji are richer in semantic meaning (Ai et al., 2017), and have semantic similarity in different languages (Barbieri et al., 2016b). Therefore, a lot of research focuses on the word sense disambiguation task of emoji. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12642, Thomson, S., Kluftinger, E., and Wentland, J. doi: 10.1145/2957265.2961844, Tossell, C. C., Kortum, P., Shepard, C., Barg-Walkow, L. H., Rahmati, A., and Zhong, L. (2012). Herring, S. C., and Dainas, A. R. (2018). Kim et al. 143, 109–120. Verbal aggression in virtual environment. 9, 360–369. Ge, J., and ACM (2019). The role of sentence closing as an emotional marker: a case of Japanese mobile phone e-mail. Like non-verbal clues in face-to-face communication, emoticons can help clarify intentions in ambiguous contexts (Thompson et al., 2016), express emotions (Walther and D'Addario, 2001; Aldunate and Gonzálezibáñez, 2016; Wall et al., 2016; Esposito et al., 2017) and improve the efficiency of communication (Dunlap et al., 2016). Lee et al. 52, 707–721. Say it with a smiling face with smiling eyes: judicial use and legal challenges with emoji interpretation in Canada. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.02.037, Marengo, D., Settanni, M., and Giannotta, F. (2019). Other researchers believe that the popularity of emoji reflects multicultural communication and cultural globalization (Skiba, 2016), and that there is some unconscious power behind the use of non-verbal cues like emoji (Elder, 2018), which strengthen the inequality and exploitation of our social system (Stark and Crawford, 2015). doi: 10.1109/ICICOS.2017.8276371, Cappallo, S., Mensink, T., Snoek, C. G. M., and ACM. doi: 10.1023/A:1014479919684, Leslie, E. (2019). Data Syst. Ambiguity and misunderstanding m… doi: 10.18653/v1/P17-3022. This difference is not only evident between countries, but also within the same country (Barbieri et al., 2016a). Consequently, emojis have become popular for clarifying online communication. doi: 10.1109/ICKEA.2017.8169892, Rathan, M., Hulipalled, V. R., Murugeshwari, P., and Sushmitha, H. (2017). More research in this area is referred to in section The Emotional Functions of Emoji of this paper. Table 5. Can. It has been found that gender, age and frequency of usage do not affect consumers' ability to describe and distinguish stimuli with emoji (Jaeger et al., 2018b), and certain emojis can help consumers better differentiate product samples (Schouteten et al., 2019). In public communication, women are more likely to use emoji while in private communication the opposite is true (Chen Z. et al., 2018). EURASIP J. Wirel Commun. 10 Upvote. doi: 10.1002/pchj.273, Hogenboom, A., Bal, D., Frasincar, F., Bal, M., de Jong, F., and Kaymak, U. Many researchers from computer science try to solve this problem using a computer method and a series of algorithms or models for semantic disambiguation and sentiment analysis have been developed. (2019). Behav. Comput. Microblog sentiment analysis with emoticon space model. 19, 99–128. The emergence and widespread use of stickers has impacted the status of emoji, and some research has begun to improve the user experience of stickers (Shi et al., 2019). Manganari, E. E., and Dimara, E. (2017). Psychiatry Res. The existing research can be divided into three categories: individual characteristics, cultural background and system platform. “Modelling sarcasm in twitter, a novel approach,” in Paper Presented at the 5th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment and Social Media Analysis. J. Lear. Food Res. This research was granted by Journalism and Marxism Research Center, Renmin University of China (RMXW2018C003). (2008a). For example, Leslie (2019) argues that the quantitative use of emoji in the workplace (such as the use of emoji to give ratings) has turned the employee into something like an on-the-shelf item in a digital economy warehouse, affecting their freedom. doi: 10.1007/s11390-015-1587-1, Jibril, T. A., and Abdullah, M. H. (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.04.010, Jaeger, S. R., Roigard, C. M., Jin, D., Vidal, L., and Ares, G. (2019). •First used by the computer scientist Scott Fahlmanin 1982. Behav. In practice, some researchers suggest that video and screen shots can be used in concrete operations to observe and record users' choices of emoji during communication (Gibson et al., 2018). (2018). Psychol., 15 October 2019 With the significant growth of UGC data on the Internet, sentiment analysis which aims at changing this data into valuable asset for decision making, has become increasingly important (Al-Azani et al., 2018). Mod. Emoji Meaning A white piece of paper with text written on it by a yellow pencil, positioned over the sheet, tip down, at a 45° angle.… Paperclip Emoji Meaning A silver paper clip, as used to hold together sheets of paper—or remove a SIM card from a mobile phone. Ljubešić, N., and Fišer, D. (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.02.088. Can emoji be used as a direct method to measure emotional associations to food names? doi: 10.3138/cjhs.2018-0020, Tigwell, G. W., and Flatla, D. R. (2016). “Sentiment analysis for sarcasm detection on streaming short text data,” in Paper Presented at the 2017 2nd International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Applications (ICKEA). User emotion identification in Twitter using specific features: hashtag, emoji, emoticon, and adjective term. doi: 10.1109/ICOMET.2019.8673479, Sakai, N. (2013). 62, 70–78. They not only have unique semantic and emotional features, but are also closely related to marketing, law, health care and many other areas. doi: 10.1145/2964284.2967278. Enhancing the impact of online hotel reviews through the use of emoticons. The democratization of emoji selection and Unicode should also be discussed. 103, 74–91. One is the relationship between individual psychological characteristics and emoji usage, and the other is the introduction of emoji into the scale design and the implementation of new psychological measurement tools. The translingual digital practices of Saudi females on WhatsApp. Child Psychol. These are new symbols created by people after recombining existing emoji. Gawne, L., and McCulloch, G. (2019). For example, emoji can be used to achieve diverse in-car interaction design. Emoji have both emotional and semantic functions and are popular in computer-mediated-communication. They can, however, act as a complement to the current form (Jaeger et al., 2017a, 2018a). doi: 10.1016/j.dcm.2018.05.005, Gülşen, T. T. (2016). 35, 443–449. Commun. 26, 379–388. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144296, Pettigrew, J. Scientific research about emoticons and emoji is also increasing. Food Qual. doi: 10.1177/1470357216634005, Cho, K.-L. (2016). Methods 50, 1–14. Behav. Comput. 62, 46–59. smiling), gestures (e.g. Emoji are widely used in instant messaging, e-mail, social networking and many other forms of CMC (Dresner and Herring, 2010). doi: 10.1145/2480362.2480498, Jack, R. E., Blais, C., Scheepers, C., Schyns, P. G., and Caldara, R. (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.11.007, Derks, D., Bos, A. E., and Von Grumbkow, J. The use of emoji is influenced by and varies according to factors such as individual circumstances, culture, and platforms. Emoji: what does the scientific literature say about them?-A new way to communicate in the 21th century. Hum. Jurnal Ilmu Komputer dan Informasi 7, 18–23. One line of research using the K-MEANS clustering algorithm found that the most distinctive feature of emoji use in the “first world” (defined here as North America, Western Europe, the Russian Federation, and Australia) was a lack of emotions, while in the “second world” cluster (covering most of South America, Eastern Europe, India, China, Eastern Europe, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia) emoji are used in a more specific, emotionally clear way. How a smiley protects health: a pilot intervention to improve hand hygiene in hospitals by activating injunctive norms through emoticons. doi: 10.3758/s13428-017-0878-6, Sadiq, M., and Shahida, IEEE. Teach. Kimura and Katsurai (2017) assigned multi-dimensional emotional vectors to emoji by calculating the co-occurrence frequency of emoji and emotional words in WordNet-Affect. Cross-cultural comparison of nonverbal cues in emoticons on Twitter: evidence from big data analysis. 0. Artif. A longitudinal study of emoticon use in text messaging from smartphones. Functions of the nonverbal in CMC: emoticons and illocutionary force. In this paper we present the Emoji Sentiment Ranking, the first emoji sentiment lexicon of 751 emojis. The Effect of Social Media Marketing Content on Consumer Engagement: Evidence From Facebook. Besides, the use of emoji is associated with psychological differences. 51, 1–12. Lee, D., Hosanagar, K., and Nair, H. (2014). Women use them more frequently and men use them more abundantly (Tossell et al., 2012; Prada et al., 2018). A., Ratnasari, E. K., Mutrofin, S., and Arifin, A. (2013). Behav. “Opico: a study of emoji-first communication in a mobile social app,” in Paper Presented at the Companion of the World Wide Web Conference. Hum. By using the Word2Vec clustering method, Mayank et al. Emoji are used more and more frequently in network communication, and the way they are used is becoming more and more diversified as well. Nurs. 33, 127–131. 37:56. doi: 10.1097/01.NEP.0000476112.24899.a1, Sodikin, M. (2018). Kelly, R., and Watts, L. (2015). Emoji make up for the lack of non-verbal cues in CMC, and play an auxiliary role in conveying emotion (Gülşen, 2016), expressing semantics (Walther and D'Addario, 2001), and promoting interpersonal communication (Gibson et al., 2018). Lit. Emoji are vastly becoming an integral part of everyday communication, yet little is understood about the extent to which these are processed emotional… Meet Shigetaka Kurita, the father of emoji. React with Emoji. A., Freitas, L. A., Vieira, R., and Bochernitsan, M. (2013). For instance, Novak et al. (2016). doi: 10.1109/ICDMW.2016.0139. doi: 10.18653/v1/W17-5215, Luangrath, A. W., Peck, J., and Barger, V. A. The more polite and distant the conversation between people, the more abstract, geometric and static the emoji will become. (2016). In terms of the cognition of emoji, females perceive emoji as more familiar, clear and meaningful (Rodrigues et al., 2017). Eval. Soc. Specific language environments also affect the use of emoji. Alshenqeeti (2016) argues that emoji is essentially a form of visual paralanguage. Enhancing targeted advertising with social context endorsement. 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