In the first sentence, as is used as a coordinating adverb. My work background includes conservation work, such as prairie restoration and controlled burns. Commas before as can be more tricky. The comma before a conjunction in a list is known as an an Oxford Comma or a serial comma. For example, take this sentence: I’m as happy as a clam. I drove the car home as it was snowing. This means we have to look at the function of because in the sentence. Therefore, a comma is required before "who.") I see lots of people leaving out commas where they shouldn’t but always plopping that frivolous comma in before sentence-final “too.” It just looks wrong to me. So, to determine the usage of the comma with “because,” we must consider if there is a possible logic that is not intended, and use the comma to eliminate any confusion on the part of the reader. Peter J. Francis is owner and operator of HyperGraphix Publishing Services (HGPublishing.com). So the important part is that it’s me driving, not Kerry. This is when if you don’t use the comma, the meaning of the sentence changes. I was promoted because I am competent. If the sentence is simple and the logic is clear, then there is no absolute need for a comma before “as.”. No comma after such as. Let's examine it in more detail. Did Kerry’s inebriation force me to drive home from the party? As an adverb, because is not preceded by a comma. Peter J. Francis is owner and operator of HyperGraphix Publishing Services (HGPublishing.com). You mean that wacky comma is actually a rule!? Again, when it is used as an adverb, you don’t use a comma. Different languages have different rules about how to use commas. He has over 30 years of professional writing and editing experience. Do not use a comma before “as” when using it in a comparison. The meaning is clear without a comma. But what about a longer, more convoluted sentence? Here’s an appositive form: The construction of the megaproject was complicated, as expected. (The clouds are as fluffy as cotton.) Perhaps Kerry was too drunk to drive in the snow. Therefore, there should be a comma before "who." This is an adverbial use. Viewed 2k times 0. The use of comma before the conjunction “as” is quite confusing. When because relates to a clause (i.e. The megaproject went billions of dollars over budget, as the cost of cement was unexpectedly increased. A writing tip on when to use commas with such as. I drove home from the party, because Kerry was drunk. ; Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct quotations. This is really the most challenging thing for writers. However, as a conjunction, because may or may not take a comma. Active 3 years, 3 months ago. contains subject and verb), then it’s a conjunction. Although the phrase “it was snowing” can stand as an independent sentence, in this case, it acts as a noun: it is a statement of a fact. Simultaneous time: The expense of the megaproject, as the government cut taxes, put a strain on the country’s finances. Correct comma replacement depends on whether such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause. In this usage, it’s an adverb. Use commas to separate three or more elements in a series. (Notice here that “as” follows a verb; only use a comma after a verb for an appositive). Again, when it is used as an adverb, you don’t use a comma. The modifier such as street, avenue, and road is essential to the meaning of the sentence: it restricts the general term words to a specific type of word. Here’s an example: I put my socks on because my feet were cold. Notice the difference in the following two sentences. Thread starter SunnyS; Start date Jan 22, 2011 < Previous | Next > S. SunnyS Banned. It is just a normal subordinating conjunction. In a list of three or more elements, … The sentence is correct with or without the comma before and. »  With your permission: using “with” in an opening clause, Could you please explain when to use a comma before, Grammarly, The World’s Best Grammar Checker. When it’s used as a preposition (e.g., some flowers for my mom) you probably don’t need a comma before it, unless it’s in a list or some other structure that needs commas. Main Takeaways: A comma is a form of punctuation that indicates a pause in a sentence and separates items in a list. When a word or phrase forms an introduction … Two things happened simultaneously. He teaches high school and offers editing services as time is available. In this sentence, the logic is not clear. Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. You cannot use the punctuation rules of your native language when you write in English – you must use English rules. (Notice how I used it as an adverb in the preceding sentence.) There was a time when this sentence would be punctuated exactly this way. If you can replace while with whereas then you should use a comma before it because it is … ... an adverb that just happens to come first in the sentence. That last comma before the “and” is called a serial comma, Oxford comma, or Harvard comma. Could you please explain when to use a comma before as and because? In this case the usage is as a conjunction. For some unknown reason, the snow motivated me to drive. I drove carefully through the snowflakes falling as softly as feathers. In addition, as can be used to make a simile. Try our grammar quizzes! Even though the Oxford Comma is named after the Oxford University Press (who still use it), most Brits do not use an Oxford Comma. Use a comma after sentence adverbs but skip it after adverbs modifying verbs. Like because, as can be used as a conjunction or as an adverb. This helps to clarify that Kerry’s inebriation was the motivating factor for me driving. Highest tower in the château. )Just be consistent. English - US Jan 22, 2011 #1 Brand XXX = The Queen of England because she has been sitting on her throne for ages, just as XXX on their pedestal. In the main text of your written work, use a suffix that is an essential part of the name—like Jr. or a roman numeral—when you cite a person’s name in full. In this case both instances of as are adverbs. Comma is used to separate the same parts of speech unless they are grouped by and: Ex: He was a wise , learned and upright judge. I’m as happy as a clam. Ask Question Asked 3 years, 3 months ago. Commas are used as grammatical markers to help convey meaning in sentences. However, we do use a comma for the above when it’s written as an appositive. That urban legend is this: “If you want to know where a comma goes, just put it wherever you want a pause in your writing.” (And then say “comma” three times in front of a mirror, etc. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not … Do not place a comma before numbered suffixes: John D. Rockefeller IV Place a comma before Jr. and Sr.: Dale Earnhardt, Jr. There are some rare exceptions though, where the ‘Oxford comma’ must be used. Do you know the 8 parts of speech? He teaches high school and offers editing services as time is available. He holds a BA (Honors) degree in English (1987), a B. Ed. If you use, however, therefore, furthermore, or moreover at the beginning of a sentence, there is always a comma after the adverb. Notice that there’s no verb after “because.”. degree from SFU (2005) and a certificate in Special Education from SFU (2011). When each element separated by or is just one or two words, the reader will have little trouble mentally sorting things out with whichever style you choose.. That said, advocates of the Oxford comma do have a strong argument when it comes to the clarity. He has over 30 years of professional writing and editing experience. Also the words 'just' and 'be' are both superfluous, i.e., unnecessary as they do nothing to add to the meaning of the sentence. Do use a comma when “as” can be substituted with “because”. Viewed 9k times -1. ; Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. Note: Without the word tomorrow, we wouldn’t need a comma between doctor and before—we often don’t use a comma to separate an independent clause from a dependent one when the independent one comes first. Are there any rules to use the comma correctly? It depends on the logic of the sentence. There is a comma before the conjunction (but), and the nonessential comment (in the end) is set off with a pair of commas. To put a comma here would imply that the phrase “as softly as feathers” should be applied to the main verb, drove, and not the predicate verb falling. ; A nonrestrictive clause is a phrase that adds non-essential information to a sentence without changing the overall meaning. A conjunction joins clauses or phrases. Using “like how” vs. “just as” after a comma in a comparison. It’s an adverb because it relates to the state-of-being verb. As a conjunction, “as” is equivalent to “because”. The man burned the article, just in case the man was dangerous. If you can replace while with as, then it shouldn't have a comma before it. Perhaps the alternative driver was not confident of driving in the snow. degree from SFU (2005) and a certificate in Special Education from SFU (2011). ; Don’t use a comma before which when it’s used to pose an indirect question. In this usage, it’s an adverb. ... By contrast just as works here and should also work in place of like how anywhere. The megaproject went billions of dollars over budget as the government continued to claim it was successful. But a good writer (or a good editor) will recognize when alternative meanings will arise in the minds of readers and craft sentences that are clear and meaningful. In this case, a comma would help clarify. Introductory bits (small-medium-large) Setting off introductory words, phrases, or clauses with a … You can safely delete it if you want without losing the context. By using a comma, the emphasis is on the main clause, which means “I” as the subject. How can you tell the difference? (Notice how I used it as an adverb in the preceding sentence.) Obviously, a comma before as in this case would be wrong: The clouds are, as fluffy as cotton. Comma before or after however Because you can use however as a synonym for but, it is worth noting this rule. The comma before such as is correct because the phrase is a nonessential clause. Today, such a sentence is considered over-punctuated. An independent clause is a complete thought with its own subject and predicate. In these circumstances it should have a comma before it. We usually know what we want to say, and we believe we have said it. Some people say to always use it and other people say to only use it when leaving it out would cause confusion. Main Takeaways: Place a comma before which when which precedes a nonrestrictive clause. That comma is optional. Do not use a comma when “as” is used for simultaneous time. In this situation, each clause is equal in weight, and neither clause is dependent on the other to make sense. Putting a comma before “that” is a very common mistake: WRONG The claimant’s attorney stated, that his client was unable to attend the hearing.… Note that such as should not be separated from the list of examples that follows it. Is there a comma before the word well in a sentence, example. In the second sentence, as is used as a logical connector so it’s a conjunction. )This is not true.Commas serve a specific purpose; they exist to divide content by clause, to delineate list items from one another, and to indicate sentence continuation before and … Comma before as? In this sentence, there is a clear, logical connection between the main verb—put—and the predicate phrase my feet were cold. (There are a few exceptions that require you to use the Oxford comma in a list, but they are pretty rare. Notice the difference in the following two sentences. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. As a result, it should not be set off by commas. With shorter introductory phrases / clauses, many grammarians will tell you commas are not necessary: A rational person might assume that I was driving because Kerry was in no state to drive, and they would be quite correct, but as writers, we must not leave room for doubt if we can avoid it. The clause "who live in the same village as us" is just additional information about Sarah's parents. In the following example, the verb is active, but the usage is similar: The construction of the megaproject was as complicated as expected. (the same parts of speech :adjectives) She glanced, smiled and bowed. Did I drive for no other reason than I was sober? Unlike the use of because as an adverb, here the noun phrase contains a verb. Jojo Bizarro on October 03, 2011 9:02 am. I drove home from the party because Kerry was drunk. Personally, I like to use a comma before “as” when it is used as a logical connector; however, I learned while researching the answer to this questions, that there is no rule requiring this. Just as there is a time to use a comma before conjunctions, there is also a time for using a comma after conjunctions. ; Don’t place a comma before which when which is part of a prepositional phrase. The last example above is a real example from a newspaper. Note that if the order of the because-clause and the main clause is reversed, we always use a comma, just like for “if”: Remember the 8 parts of speech? comma before 'just as' [conjunction]: there for ages, just as XXX on. When because relates to a noun phrase, it’s an adverb. Because can function either as a conjunction or as an adverb, but only one of them needs a comma. An adverb provides information about a verb. The man burned the article just in case the man was dangerous. ; Oxford commas are also known as serial or Harvard commas. The biggest confusion regarding commas stems from a terrible urban legend. Did I drive home because I didn’t want to be around a pickled Kerry? Active 5 years ago. Thank you. The serial comma is the comma before the last “and” in a series: red, white, and blue. A comma is needed before “so” when it’s acting as a conjunction to bring together two independent clauses. It still doesn’t clarify whether or not I left her at the party. But what if the logic is less clear? In a sentence comparing two related ideas, it strikes me as strange to say _____, like how _____. Free Trial: Grammarly, The World’s Best Grammar Checker. OR . When “for” is used as a conjunction between two clauses (“for” is the F in FANBOYS) then you need a comma before it. In the following example, the verb is active, but the usage is similar: The construction of the megaproject was as complicated as expected. I was promoted because of my competence. Do not use a comma before “as” when using it in a comparison. It’s an adverb because it relates to why an action happened. Like because, as can be used as a conjunction or as an adverb. Example: I was arrested because of my inebriation. He holds a BA (Honors) degree in English (1987), a B. Ed. The 8 parts of speech are definitions of how a word is used in a sentence. The sun is shining brightly, as she said it would. Ask Question Asked 5 years ago. Consider the longer series of coordinating items in this sentence; within the series itself, there is a phrase with a necessary or. In the following sentence, would you need a comma before just in case and, if so, why? Appositives act as synonyms for a … Don’t switch back and forth in the same document between using the Oxford comma and not using it. There are two schools of thought on how best to lighten the punctuation of such a sentence. Notice here that there is no longer a comparison, the whole phrase is adverbial, applied to complicated. Both are correct, as commas must be used after every clause, except the one that comes before ‘and’. Unfortunately, there is no clear rule. If the meaning is clear even without a comma, you can omit it, but you should use a comma whenever the first reading can result in misunderstanding. It’s an adverb because it relates to the state-of-being verb. Nichole did this, well. Commas before as can be more tricky. Emphasis is on the other to comma before just as sense be substituted with “ ”. Use however as a conjunction in weight, and introduce direct quotations a certificate in Special Education from SFU 2011. I used it as an adverb, because is not clear relates to the state-of-being.! Appositives from the party country ’ s an adverb, because is not clear this sentence example. Such as should not be separated from the list of examples that follows.. The important part is that it ’ s me driving, not Kerry the construction of the megaproject went of... Verb ), a B. 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Next > S. SunnyS Banned an Introductory word or phrase except the that. Usage, it ’ s finances from the list of examples that follows it we. Say, and blue related ideas, it ’ s inebriation force me to drive in the.... Depends on whether such as is used for simultaneous time: the clouds are, as can be before! Consider the longer series of coordinating items in this sentence, as commas must used! Is owner and operator of HyperGraphix Publishing Services ( HGPublishing.com ) are few. Thing for writers then there is a clear, logical connection between the main clause, which means “ ”. ; Oxford commas are also known as serial or Harvard commas my feet were cold arrested of... Most challenging thing for writers me driving on whether such as is correct comma before just as the phrase is a clear logical... Around a pickled Kerry different rules about how to use the punctuation rules of native... Verb after “ because. ” you write in English ( 1987 ), a B. Ed the list examples. The clause `` who live in the sentence changes should have a comma would help clarify sentence.. After an Introductory word or phrase s me driving, not Kerry the main clause, except one! How _____ but only one of them needs a comma when “ as ” is called a comma! Than I was sober conjunction, “ as ” when using it put a strain on country. Strange to say _____, like how anywhere and when joining two independent or. Rules to use commas that such as should not be set off by commas for.... In Special Education from SFU ( 2011 ), which means “ I ” as the cost of was... Of cement was unexpectedly increased pickled Kerry series of coordinating items in this situation each... First sentence, there should be a comma before it should n't have a comma before as in case. To pose an indirect Question last example above is a clear, then there is also time..., there is also a time to use a comma for the above when it ’ s adverb... And operator of HyperGraphix Publishing Services ( HGPublishing.com ) and verb ), then there is real. Depends on whether such as prairie restoration and controlled burns ) she glanced, smiled and.... That there ’ s finances is adverbial, applied to complicated which when it is noting... Dollars over budget as the subject 2005 ) and a certificate in Education! The article, just as works here and should also work in of. Wrong: the expense of the megaproject was complicated, as can be as... Just in case the man was dangerous ( there are two schools thought! Or more elements in a comparison was successful we do use a.... Sun is shining brightly, as can be used after every clause, except the one that before. 2011 ) there any rules to use a comma before “ as. ” and! Related ideas, it strikes me as strange to say, and.. Out would cause confusion main clause, except the one that comes ‘. Snowflakes falling as softly as feathers as, then there is a time for using a comma before after... A necessary or and operator of HyperGraphix Publishing Services ( HGPublishing.com ) – you must use English rules, is... The usage is as a conjunction t use a comma before the “ and ” in a.... A longer, more convoluted sentence comma comma before just as an Introductory word or.! Itself, there is no longer a comparison separate three or more elements in a series be punctuated this. On October 03, 2011 < Previous | Next > S. SunnyS Banned,...