bridge at Quebec City. The inquiry, which concluded with a report published in 1908, also heard from the Lajeunesse brothers who were among the few who had landed near the foreshore. The devel-opment of a cantilever design, which seemed the only solu-tion at the time, is described. The central span also collapsed while being put in place in 1916. Quebec Bridge Disaster -- 11 September 1916. How they got there I don’t know, but they saved my life.”, Eyewitness Arsene Larocque, who helped transport the span to the bridge site, described the moment of the accident with some detail. on the wiki sept. 11th page it refers to 1916 - The Quebec Bridge collapses for a second time, killing 11 men. In 1907 the incomplete structure collapsed into the river with a loss of 75 lives. Construction started in 1913, and eventually the two approach spans, the anchor arms and cantilevers went up on either side of the river. On October 2, 1900, the Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, placed the cornerstone of the Québec Bridge. The project failed twice, at the cost of 88 lives, and took over 30 years to complete. In 1929, a roadway was added to the two rail lines to accommodate the needs of residents in the Québec city area, and it operated as a toll bridge for cars from 1929 to 1942. After a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the collapse [of the Quebec Bridge in August 1907 ], construction started on a second bridge. The rail bridge was designed to link the two shores and provide easier transit for the 11 railroad companies in particular between the railways in Québec and the United States. “Well,” he said, “I could feel it start to go down and it was going down fast you got tears in your eyes, and you could hardly realize anything beside you. They had lived with this span. The bridge construction was restarted in 1913 and completed in August 1919. The failure of these chords was due to their defective design.” The commission attributed this to “errors of judgement” on the part of Peter L. Szlapka, the designing engineer, and Theodore Cooper, the consulting engineer. In 1903, the Government of Canada vigorously promoted the bridge project because it wanted to see the establishment of the National Transcontinental Railway from Moncton to Winnipeg. Further, after talking to McLure, Cooper assumed that work on the bridge had stopped, but this was not the case. 1916: Second Quebec Bridge Collapse Engineering disaster Quebec City, Quebec Central Canada 1917–1966. It is the longest cantilever bridge in the world. Then it disappeared. Seventy-eight years later, the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada unveiled a new plaque that commemorates this “remarkable engineering achievement,” but the wording on the plaque pays only scant attention to the workmen who died during its construction. You will not receive a reply. After their meeting on the morning of the Aug. 29, 1907, Cooper telegraphed the contracting company in Phoenixville as follows: “Add no more load to the bridge till after due consideration of the facts. On October 2, 1900, the Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, placed the cornerstone of the Québec Bridge. Newport Point, QB Fatal House Fire, Mar 1923. ENG 3000 York University Ali Dianat, Armin Ghaemi, Amir-Hossein Khademi, Sean O'Brien, Kevin Suarez However, at 5:37 p.m., Aug. 29, 1907, around the same time that the Phoenixville meeting was ending, the Quebec Bridge suddenly collapsed. This feature was conceived by Phelps Johnson, president and general manager of St. Lawrence Bridge Company. On January 24, 1996, the Government of Canada designated the Québec Bridge a National Historic Site, recognizing it as the most important bridge in the history of Canadian civil engineering. The First Quebec Bridge Disaster -A Case Study. The southwest corner of the span tore away and sagged. à The Collapse of September 11, 1916 ... Holtz, Neal. Indeed, all that remained was the job of hoisting the mammoth centre span that would be connected to the cantilever arms. McLure will be over at five o’clock.” Cooper believed that the same message would be forwarded from Phoenixville to Quebec City, but this never happened. The bridge was completed in 1917 and the Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII) officially opened it on 22 August 1919. From an investigation by the St. Lawrence Bridge Company, the company assigned to build the bridge, the collapse was due to a material failure in one of the four bearing castings that supported the central span. The design included two tracks for trains and one lane of roadway. Vautelet was President and Chief Engineer. Meanwhile, back at the construction site, at about the same time the decision-makers in Phoenixville were ending their meeting, the Quebec Bridge collapsed at 5:30 p.m. Off Seven Islands, QB Steamer ST. OLAF Sinks In St. Lawrence River, Nov 1900 ... Quebec City, QC Bridge Collapse, Sept 1916. Ottawa’s Heron Road Bridge also collapsed during construction, on 10 August 1966. He also described how he saw his brother emerge from the wreckage, bleeding but not seriously injured. In 1913, construction began, and the central span was built in Sillery Cove from May to July 1916. In August, McLure telegraphed New York because splices between some of the lower chords in the south anchor arm were bent. Quebec City, QC Bridge Collapse, Sept 1916. At 10:50 a.m, soon after they returned to work, something went terribly wrong. Three engineers were appointed: H. E. Vautelet, a former engineer for the Canadian Pacific Railways, Maurice FitzMaurice from Britain, who worked on the construction of the Forth Bridge , and Ralph Modjeski from Chicago. Acting on Hoare’s advice, McLure went to New York City to brief Cooper first hand about the difficulties. Tacoma Narrows Bridge (1940) Lessons from the Failure of a Great Machine In fact, the wrecked structure was in such poor condition that it was unrecognizable to the men who had been very familiar with it for nearly two years. At last, the world’s longest cantilever bridge was completed and the first train crossed it in October. During its construction, the bridge collapsed twice, killing 89 people. When I did, I found two pieces of wood wedged in tightly at the elbow joint of both my arms. The bridge collapsed during construction on August 29, 1907, killing 75 workers. 11 September 1916 Quebec Bridge Collapse After a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the collapse, construction started on a second bridge. Thirteen men were carried to their deaths and several others were injured. But despite these and other irregularities, the Phoenix Bridge Company did not halt construction. There was no mention, however, of the men who died when the bridge collapsed. December 15, 1967. The choice seemed ideal because when it came to professional construction designers, Cooper had few equals on the continent. On October 2, 1900, the Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, placed the cornerstone of the Quebec Bridge. Delphis Lajeunesse was working on the anchor arm with his brother, Eugene, when the bridge went down. During the federal inquiry into the disaster, Hall was asked whether he knew something was wrong with the bridge just by the feel and not by the sight of it. There are three postcards, both black-and-white and color, of the Quebec Bridge. The Quebec Bridge structure plunged over 150 feet taking with it the lives of 75 workers. There was a roaring, grinding sound when it collapsed. A cantilever bridge was proposed as the most fea­ sible design to bridge the harsh, icy waters of the St. Lawrence River. Remarkably, Cooper, who claimed he was not in good health, worked out of his New York City office and did not make visits to the site during the erection of the superstructure. Legion Magazine is published six times a year in English with a French insert. Over 100,000 people gathered in Quebec City to celebrate the big day. “One might think in the wake of this second tragedy that the engineers and contractors might have wavered in their determination to proceed with the project, but they did not. Quebec, QB St. Charles Orphanage Fire Disaster, Dec 1927. Lajeunesse was thrown down on a girder, but managed to get to his feet. By Aug. 27, the misalignment of one of the lower chords became very noticeable. This animation only illustrates the construction of the second bridge that started in 1911, 4 years after the collapse of the first bridge. Two months later it was opened to regular trains, vehicle and pedestrian traffic. Ingwall Hall, one of the few survivors, lost two fingers in the accident. The commission found that “a grave error was made in assuming the dead load for the calculations at too low a value and not afterwards revising this assumption. The span was carried on scows that were guided by tugs. Later that same day, McLure met with Phoenixville Bridge Company officials in Phoenixville and after some discussion it was decided that they would reconvene the following day. The giant arms and the steel bands which held the span shook considerably.”. The Quebec Bridge Company then let a contract to the Phoenix Bridge Company of Phoenixville, Pa., to build the structure. In April 1911, the board of engineers awarded a contract to the St. Lawrence Bridge Company of Montreal. This led to the use of nickel alloy steel to decrease the risk of fracturing. This error was of sufficient magnitude to have required the condemnation of the bridge….”. A large number of people witnessed the accident from shore and their reaction was one of disbelief. The rescuers had less than an hour to save the men, and while they tried very hard to get the men out, they lacked the equipment. It was Canada’s worst bridge disaster. On Sept. 20, 1917, the suspended span was lifted into position and fastened to the cantilever arms. The Phoenix Bridge Company’s design called for a cantilever bridge of 150 feet in height above the high water mark. Rather, the loss resulted from the failure of a casting in the erection equipment that temporarily supported the southwest corner of the span. No other part of the bridge was damaged. A few years later, on August 29, 1907, the south section of the bridge collapsed and killed 76 workers, including 33 Mohawk workers from the Kahnawake community. The entire south half of the bridge, approximately 189 MN (19,000 tons) of steel, fell into the waters of the St. Lawrence within 15 seconds. About second collapse of the bridge After a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the collapse, construction started on a second bridge, but September 11, 1916, when the central span was being raised into position, it fell into the river, killing 13 workers. On September 11, 1916, the bridge tragically collapsed for the last time killing 13 workers and injuring more than 14 others. On the morning of Sept. 11, the workmen faced a difficult task in moving the span upstream, but all went well with that part of the job. After a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the collapse, construction started on a second bridge. To this day, the collapsed central span rests at the bottom of the river. By then, the south anchor arm, the tower and two panels of the south cantilever arm were ready and six sections of anchor arm were in place. Submitted by gendisasters. An Engineer's Aspect: The Bridge Collapse of August 29, 1907. At the time, this honour had been awarded to only four other civil engineering works worldwide. A grave error was made in assuming the dead load for the calculations at too low a value … After four successful lifts on the north end and five lifts on the south end, the workmen–about 80 in all–took a break. The Quebec Bridge was 20 years in the making, from the found­ ing of the Quebec Bridge Company in 1887 to the bridge’s col­ lapse in 1907. Home » Canada Corner » O Canada » A Bridge With Two Tragedies. Besides being a transportation link for trains, the bridge would serve as a crossing point for vehicles and pedestrians. It was a slow process, but eventually the span was manoeuvred into position between the cantilever arms where huge lifting hangers, attached to the ends of the arms, raised it by hydraulic means off the scows. Travellers were used to carry heavy loads to specific jobs on the bridge. One important innovation that added strength to the bridge was the K-truss design. Hall’s traveller was located at the end of the south cantilever arm. The Royal Commission, which investigated the cause of the disaster, concluded that “the collapse of the Quebec Bridge resulted from the failure of the lower chords in the anchor arm near the main pier. The businessmen formed the Quebec Bridge Company and obtained a charter of incorporation to erect a bridge over the river, a few miles upstream from the historic city near the mouth of the Chaudiere River. The new design was again for a bridge with a single long cantilever span, but a much more massive one. He had been standing on a platform known as a “traveller”. Editor’s note: The text on the plaque erected by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada states that 76 lives were lost during the 1907 bridge collapse, other official sources, including the Canadian Encyclopedia, state 75 workmen died in the disaster. A … By 1916, the bridge was nearly completed. Pre-Centennial Period Date Disaster Type Location Region Notes Ref(s) 1917 December 6: Halifax Explosion: Wartime explosion Halifax, Nova Scotia Maritimes World War I The Royal Commission, which investigated the cause of the disaster, concluded that “the collapse of the Quebec Bridge resulted from the failure of the lower chords in the anchor arm near the main pier. “A cry of anguish went up from the onlookers as the span rushed to its watery bed,” noted an article in one Toronto newspaper. Vautelet, with carrying out necessary changes to the bridge’s basic design. Th… Vautelet was President and Chief Engineer. All rights reserved. The bridge was finally completed in 1917 and the Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII) officially opened it 22 August 1919. SECOND COLLAPSE OF THE BRIDGE On 11 September 1916 Quebec bridge again collapse in to the river killing 13 men. Only 16 bodies were recovered from the twisted wreckage at the bottom of the river. The rail bridge was designed to link the two shores and provide easier transit for the 11 railroad companies in particular between the railways in Québec and the United States. The Quebec Bridge (Pont de Québec in French) is a road, rail and pedestrian bridge across the lower Saint Lawrence River between Sainte-Foy (since 2002 a western suburb of Quebec City) and Lévis, Quebec, Canada. The span was to be lifted two feet at a time in a repeat operation until it was in place between the two arms. Tay Bridge (1879) Tom Martin's Tay Bridge Disaster. “I thought, well, I am finished, but I stood there. My partner was just about seven or eight feet from me, and I never noticed him and never saw him–never knew anything.”. The bridge finally was completed and opened for traffic in August of 1918. For years, the bridge has been viewed as an engineering marvel, but few people know the full story behind its construction and the two disasters that claimed the lives of 89 workers. The anchorage arm and the north-south cantilever were built between 1913 and 1916. Before the parts for the bridge’s superstructure were manufactured, company designing engineer Peter L. Szlapka estimated the weight of the completed work. In 1949, the federal authorities decided to change the configuration of the decks by repurposing one of the rail lines for car traffic. The Quebec Bridge (Canada) was built in 18 years. At least 75 of the 86 workmen on the site were carried to their deaths and property damage was later estimated at over $1.5 million. Bridging The St Lawrence Wonders Of World Ering. Except for the piers, nothing from the previous structure was recoverable. The Quebec Bridge Company selected Theodore Cooper, a well-known American bridge designer, as the project’s consulting engineer. At that point he thought he was going to die. The traveller was in the same place. Quebec Bridge Collapsed For The 2nd Time On September 11 1916 Scientific Diagram. Quebec Bridge has a long story behind it, a bridge that was proposed first back in 1852 but it was not complete until 1919. Legion Magazine engages Canadians in commemorating the effort, bravery and sacrifice of those who served and continue to serve in Canada’s military. Three engineers were appointed: H. E. Vautelet, a former engineer for the Canadian Pacific Railways, Maurice FitzMaurice from Britain, who worked on the construction of the Forth Bridge, and Ralph Modjeski from Chicago. On September 11, 1916, the central span built in a cove at the bottom of Mount Hermon Cemetery fell into the river as it was being hoisted. In the space of just 15 seconds, the south anchor arm, the cantilever arm and the partially completed suspended span fell some 150 feet into the St. Lawrence River. Québec, 11 September 1916 - The world’s largest cantilever suspension bridge collapsed with the loss of more than 25 lives yesterday. He endorsed the Phoenix design as the “best and the cheapest” of those submitted, although he decided to lengthen the centre span from 1,600 to 1,800 feet. From the War of 1812 to modern armed forces missions around the world, Legion Magazine offers a blend of stories, photographs, graphics, maps and posters on Canadian military history and heritage, veterans’ issues and the Canadian Armed Forces. Undaunted, the city and its engineers made a third attempt, duplicating the second design. Search for related information by keyword. “Women shrieked, men stood dumbfounded, while those directly interested in the building of the bridge could scarcely hold back the tears which welled in their eyes. Work was resumed, but on 11 September 1916 a new centre span being hoisted into position fell into the river, killing 13 men. Spanning the St. Lawrence River near Quebec City, the massive Quebec Bridge has a history of triumph and tragedy. Almost 12 years to the day after the tragic collapse, the Prince of Wales opened the … The ill-starred bridge suffered a second disaster on 11 September 1916 when a new centre span being hoisted into position fell into the river, killing 13 men. Noyan, QB House Fire, Dec 1960. Over 35,000 vehicles, including 270 transit buses, and approximately 8 VIA passenger trains and 5 CN freight trains cross the Québec Bridge every day. “It is not serious. Nothing came over on me.” Amazingly, when Lajeunesse landed he was not even dislodged from the girder he was standing on. Dee Bridge (1847) An Engineer's Aspect: The Dee Railway Bridge Disaster of 1847. Today, the bridge continues to allow passengers and goods to move freely between the two shores and the rest of North America. A few years later, on August 29, 1907, the south section of the bridge collapsed and killed 76 workers, including 33 Mohawk workers from the Kahnawake community. Three engineers were appointed: H. E. Vautelet, a former engineer for the Canadian Pacific Railways, Maurice FitzMaurice from Britain, who worked on the construction of the Forth Bridge, and Ralph Modjeskifrom Chicago. He also modified specifications that would allow for higher But the tragedy of 1907 ranks as one of the worst losses of life in the history of our Union. yeah, where's the second collapse info? A few seconds later, the other ends pulled off their supports and the whole span came loose and disappeared into the river. The 5,100-ton span had been built and was sitting in Sillery Cove, approximately 3 1/2 miles from the bridge site. Nearly all the victims were killed by falling debris or drowned. Then, on September 11 th, 1916, the time came to raise the central span that had been constructed in Sillery Cove, which was intended to join the two cantilever arms and finish the building of the bridge. The Prince of Wales officially inaugurated the Québec Bridge on August 29, 1919. As the huge center span was being lifted into place, it … They had pride in their work and on the day when their desire was to be achieved, fate intervened…. During this time, there were two accidents (1907, 1916). The bridge, which was conceived to be one of the most advanced in the world, had already collapsed nine years earlier. They have lost when victory seemed certain.”, Bridge worker Enoch McCann, who could not swim, was picked out of the chilly water by a rescue boat. Murdochville QB Bridge Collapse, May 1963. Legion Magazine is published by Canvet Publications Ltd. © 2020 Legion Magazine. In 1919, the Prince of Wales officially opened the Quebec Bridge and unveiled plaques in honour of the engineers who had designed and built the magnificent structure. Cooper decided to forge ahead and not introduce any changes. Much of this debris had to be cleared away before work could start on a new bridge. Quebec (1907 and 1916) A Bridge with Two Tragedies. It was also decided that the structure would have a cantilever attached to piers on each side of the river by anchor arms of 500 feet each and linked together by a centre span initially projected at 1,600 feet. This bridge would need to be long and high in order to accommodate ocean ships bound for Montreal. I thought the traveller had fallen down on the bridge. For these men and for their rescuers, the situation became more frantic as the tide came in. Three engineers were appointed: H. E. Vautelet, a former engineer for the Canadian Pacific Railways, Maurice FitzMaurice from Britain, who worked on the construction of the Forth Bridge, and Ralph … The bridge is both an architectural gem and a national historical site. The collapse of the Quebec Bridge resulted from the failure of the lower chords in the anchor arm near the main pier. It collapsed two times in this duration once in 1907 killing 75 workers and second time in 1916 killing 13 workers. A masterpeice of engineering, a historic structure and a strategic asset. ... Quebecbridgepres group 13 ppt the collapse of quebec bridge a mistake made twice brief case study mechanical knowledge quora collapse of the quebec bridge 1907 collapse of the quebec bridge 1907. It would be well to draw attention to as much care as possible in future work to get the best results in matching all the members before the full strains are brought upon them.”. In February 1906, Cooper became concerned when he examined the detailed drawings of the Phoenix Bridge Company and found that the actual weight of the manufactured steel parts far exceeded the weight estimated by Szlapka prior to manufacturing. The new design was again for a bridge with a single long cantilever span, but a much more massive one. I fell down in my box, stood up, fell down again, and I looked again. As before, the design called for a cantilever-type bridge, but it differed from the previous one with the lower chords of the cantilever arms several times stronger. The design included two tracks for trains and one lane of roa… The Canadian government had hoped to hire its own engineer to review the weight calculations, but Cooper objected and the government reluctantly approved the plans without alteration. Elsewhere, about a dozen men who survived the fall were trapped alive in the mangled debris on the foreshore, which at that time of day was relatively dry. The failure of these chords was due to their defective design.” The bridge was rebuilt, and on September 11, 1916, the bridge collapsed again killing 13 men. The investigation by the board of engineers determined that the span did not buckle as Larocque and others claimed. Only eleven workers on the span survived. Fortunately no lives were lost at this time. In this report I will emphasize on the first collapse. The failure of these chords was due to their defective design. “There was a noise like the snapping of steel. 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