[1] See Niddah 22b-23a regarding the three-way argument on whether or not gezera shava needs to be “open” words. (Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt by R.T. Rundle Clark, p. 216), Here we find the words of David in Psalm 110:1 - The LORD says to my Lord: "Sit at My right hand until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet.". The prophets were right to condemn Egyptian polytheism. The Horites believed that the promised Seed of the Woman would be born of their ruler-priest lines and they expected Him to visit them. Does the Oral Law Reject the Literal Understanding of the Verse. The conclusion is purely logical since these people are not regarded as males in Jewish law. Perhaps evidence for this can be found in Talmud Berachos 31b where Rabbi Akivah uses the concept that dibra torah kilshon bnei adam to defend his position! How can David's son/descendant also be called David's Lord? Here’s my humble understanding of the gezera shava. Many of its details are left open for discussion, being absent from the text. They believed in a single Creator whose son was Horus and they spoke of the Father and Son as equals. That is the Talmudic lingo for the concept that when Torah uses a double-expression whether or not the “extra” word is subject to interpterion (the opinion of Rabbi Akiva) or whether the double-expression is not considered “extra” but is merely the way that humans speak (the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael). Every time the method of interpretation seems illogical, it is likely that the interpretation isn’t the actual way they concluded the law. The simple understanding of this derivation tool is that G-d added “extra” words into the verse in order that laws be learned from it. Let’s start off with pointing out that nowhere in the Talmud does it say that these derivation tools are given from Moses at Sinai. The Bethlehem of Obed, Jesse and David is specifically associated with the Horites in I Chronicles 4:4 which names Hur (Hor) as the "father of Bethlehem." These hermeneutical rules are simply statements ofdeductivereasoning.Hillel,acontemporaryofHerodtheGreat,compiledalistofsevensuch rules. This is the basis for the theory that Rabbi Yishmael would interpret Torah rationally and Rabbi Akivah irrationally. It took the Apostles a while to sort this out since they were brought up in post-exilic Judaism which is very far from the faith of Abraham and his Habiru ancestors. Women in the Bible, Qumran and Early Rabbinic Literature begins with an objective interpretation of the biblical narratives of the Creation and the Fall, the intellectual basis of Jewish attitudes toward women, and then analyzes the divergent interpretations of Qumran and the Rabbis, the grounds of their distinct doctrines and halakhot. Skip to comments. A Brief Introduction to Rabbinic Exegesis of the Bible [For the entire article, of which this is only the last few pages, see John C. Reeves, “Scriptural Authority in Early Judaism,” in Living Traditions of the Bible: Scripture in Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Practice (ed. After we already know that it means an Esrog, the sages decided to connect it to the verse’s text. The rabbinic methods of interpretation are based on what they call four levels, abbreviated as PaRDeS.1 PaRDeS is an acronym of the following words: Peshat (פְּשָׁט): meaning plain or simple. They have given ignominious names to Mary and her Son. He did so by writing the Torah in a way that it’s comprehensible to humans; and He did so by writing it in a language which is a form of communication for humans. Rabbinic Text. asked Jul 10 at 8:53. Now, when the missing law was filled in by the rabbis, they did so by two means as mentioned earlier. This is why Abraham's ancestors were buried with such care and their tombs sealed. But even according to the first opinion, these words are hardly “extra” as seen in the many examples of gezera shava brought in the Talmud. But this answer doesn’t make this derivation tool any more logical. The classical approach to the Derivation Tools or Methods of Rabbinic Interpretation (midot shehatorah nidreshet bahen in Talmudic lingo) is simple and easy. And Psalm 110: 4. Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. [vi] Yet the Talmud brings multiple rather interesting ways to learn from the text of the verse itself that the “nice fruit” means the Esrog. Your email address will not be published. Modern “rabbis,” such as leaders in the Reform movement and other denominations that care more about modernization than about religion cannot be regarded as authoritative in the religious arena. But I would like to remind them that this concept is highly recognized by asmachta as explained in “What’s Up With the Far-Fetched Interpretations.” Over here, we are simply applying this concept a step further in order to answer the many questions there are on the traditional understanding of the derivation tools. Therefore there would be many arguments on the gezera shava and the Sanhedrin would argue it out and vote for a verdict. These laws are the details of many commandments whose details are … They believed that the salvation of the people depended on a Righteous Ruler, who having overcome death, could led his people to immortality. Over the centuries, Jewish and Christian scholars have developed different ways of interpreting the Bible. The consensus is that the meaning of the “nice fruit” discussed in the verse is the Esrog and is known to us by a tradition from Moses at Sinai. [This explains why the laws learned out of a yitur are always logical laws that would probably be applied even without the “extra” word.][8]. This Hebrew Bible was edited by esteemed translator and scholar, Rabbi A.J. These people, the rabbis concluded, are not required to travel to Jerusalem for the holidays. When Moses heard this, he was satisfied and was ready to give the Torah to the Jews. 1. vote. The Book of Job is one of the most problematic portions of the Bible and has called forth a variety of interpretations. From there it is clear that the method of interpreting the verse isn’t the way the we know of the 39 forbidden labors but rather is a post-facto association once we already know of the law by other means (in this case via a tradition from Moses at Sinai). This would help the students pay attention in class and to remember it for the future. The Mikraot Gedolot or Second Rabbinic Bible can be used to compare the text of the Hebrew Bible in printed Bibles today, with Medieval texts, with the Leningrad Codex and the Aleppo Codex, and with the Dead Sea Scrolls. It is one of the simplest Bible prophecies to understand because God gives the interpretation directly after the prophecy.. King Nebuchadnezzar had a dream but could not remember it. This is Jesus' bloodline through Mary. Just because two Mitzvos share a common word doesn’t mean that they are identical and are to be learned one from the other. The Church Fathers condemned Jewish attempts to discredit the testimony of … It was the means by which the early teachers of Judaism made the Bible intelligible to their congregants in the ancient synagogues of the Holy Land, and relevant to their daily lives. Some traditional Orthodox believers might brush this away as apologetic and would say that the sages wouldn’t interpret the text if it weren’t truly the way they were learning the law from. Hiram I, David and Jesus share a common Horite ancestry that extends back to Eden. [ii] Now, the traditional understanding of this is that the gezera shava must come from his teachers who received it from their teachers up until Moses at Sinai. Due to the complexity of this sensitive gezera shava method of interpretation, the Talmudic sages limited its use. The following is a short summary of some of the beginning rabbinic interpretation laws, compiled from the Interpreting The Bible class syllabus available from Tim Hegg's web site www.torahresource.com. Your email address will not be published. [7] In some cases they were able to determine the details by logically analyzing the text and comparing it other verses. [6] To answer this question, plus some other questions, Rabeinu Tam in Tosfos (Shabbat 96b) suggests an answer that shows just how problematic the gezera shavah concept is. [3] An example of such would be from Chagigah 4a in which the term “all your males”, said about the command of pilgrimage to the Temple, is used to exclude an individual of undetermined sex and a hermaphrodite from the requirement of the Mitzvah. But before that let’s visit the topic of logical interpretations of the verses. Comment document.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "ab0db38427311e66c4669aa8a848ad4f" );document.getElementById("ha948e83da").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); THE RATIONAL BELIEVER © 2020. This is what we call the sages or rabbis. An introduction to the workings of rabbinic interpretation of the Bible prepared by a foremost scholar of the rabbinic period. If so, why would there be the need for the yitur? They are compared by means of both of the Mitzvos sharing an “identical word.”, The issues with this derivation tool are obvious. In short, this method of interpretation is that if a law or detail is missing from one Mitzvah, we can attach that missing law from another Mitzvah in which the law or detail isn’t missing. But I beg to differ. See Makkot 12a regarding the dispute of whether Torah speaks in human language or not. It’s written just as anyone would write a sentence. The Sanhedrin relocated to Jamnia and from there the campaign to paint Jesus as a fraud began in earnest. Growing out of Pharisaic Judaism, Rabbinic Judaism is based on the belief that at Mount Sinai, Moses received from God the Written Torah and the "Oral Torah," being understandings and … This custom is actually still commonly practiced by rabbis nowadays. Sometimes the early Christians agreed with the rabbis' interpretations, but often they did not. We won’t get into this long discussion but see Talmud Yerushalmi Shabbat 87:2 for further understanding. The job of the sages is to “figure out” what the law there is. I sure hope that when reading this book you are not comparing sentences based on a common word they both share. Meaning to say that Moses told us at Sinai that these words are to be interpreted via the gezera shava method of interpretation, without telling us what the law to be interpreted actually is. Did the Wild Stories of Midrash Actually Happen? Rabbi Akivah responded that these laws are from tradition from Moses at Sinai. But the second way wasn’t expounded from the text, rather from logic. Since Abraham was Habiru(Hebrew) and not a Jew, the central narrative of Judaism shifted to Moses and we came to think of Israel as having two different origins. Heavy. preserved faithfully down through the centuries, Jewish and Christian women Science. 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